Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 regulates cyclin D1 and c-myc internal ribosome entry site function through Akt signaling
ABSTRACT The translation of the cyclin D1 and c-myc mRNAs occurs via internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation under conditions of reduced eIF-4F complex formation and Akt activity. Here we identify hnRNP A1 as an IRES trans-acting factor that regulates cyclin D1 and c-myc IRES activity, depending on the Akt status of the cell. hnRNP A1 binds both IRESs in vitro and in intact cells and enhances in vitro IRES-dependent reporter expression. Akt regulates this IRES activity by inducing phosphorylation of hnRNP A1 on serine 199. Serine 199-phosphorylated hnRNP A1 binds to the IRESs normally but is unable to support IRES activity in vitro. Reducing expression levels of hnRNP A1 or overexpressing a dominant negative version of the protein markedly inhibits rapamycin-stimulated IRES activity in cells and correlated with redistribution of cyclin D1 and c-myc transcripts from heavy polysomes to monosomes. Importantly, knockdown of hnRNP A1 also renders quiescent Akt-containing cells sensitive to rapamycin-induced G(1) arrest. These results support a role for hnRNP A1 in mediating rapamycin-induced alterations of cyclin D1 and c-myc IRES activity in an Akt-dependent manner and provide the first direct link between Akt and the regulation of IRES activity.
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ABSTRACT: The increased cap-independent translation of anti-apoptotic proteins is involved in the development of drug resistance in lung cancer but signalling events regulating this are poorly understood. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) signalling-induced S6 kinase 2 (S6K2) activation is necessary, but the downstream mediator(s) coupling this kinase to the translational response is unknown. Here, we show that S6K2 binds and phosphorylates hnRNPA1 on novel Ser4/6 sites, increasing its association with BCL-XL and XIAP mRNAs to promote their nuclear export. In the cy-toplasm, phosphoS4/6-hnRNPA1 dissociates from these mRNAs de-repressing their IRES-mediated translation. This correlates with the phosphorylation-dependent association of hnRNPA1 with 14-3-3 lead-ing to hnRNPA1 sumoylation on K183 and its re-import into the nucleus. A non-phosphorylatible, S4/6A mutant prevented these processes, hindering the pro-survival activity of FGF-2/S6K2 signalling. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining of lung and breast cancer tissue samples demonstrated that increased S6K2 expression correlates with de-creased cytoplasmic hnRNPA1 and increased BCL-XL expression. In short, phosphorylation on novel N-term sites of hnRNPA1 promotes translation of anti-apoptotic proteins and is indispensable for the pro-survival effects of FGF-2.Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; 42(20). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku953 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cellular function of the cancer-associated RNA-binding protein La has been linked to translation of viral and cellular mRNAs. Recently, we have shown that the human La protein stimulates IRES-mediated translation of the cooperative oncogene CCND1 in cervical cancer cells. However, there is little known about the underlying molecular mechanism by which La stimulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation, and we propose that its RNA chaperone activity is required. Herein, we show that La binds close to the CCND1 start codon and demonstrate that La's RNA chaperone activity can change the folding of its binding site. We map the RNA chaperone domain (RCD) within the C-terminal region of La in close proximity to a novel AKT phosphorylation site (T389). Phosphorylation at T389 by AKT-1 strongly impairs its RNA chaperone activity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the RCD as well as T389 is required to stimulate CCND1 IRES-mediated translation in cells. In summary, we provide a model whereby a novel interplay between RNA-binding, RNA chaperoning and AKT phosphorylation of La protein regulates CCND1 IRES-mediated translation. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.Nucleic Acids Research 12/2014; 43(1). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku1309 · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway is characteristic for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The activity of the master regulator of this pathway, PTEN, is often impaired in T-ALL. However, experimental evidence suggests that input from receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is required for sustained mTOR activation, even in the absence of PTEN. We previously reported the expression of Neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinases (TRKs) and their respective ligands in primary human leukemia samples. In the present study we aimed to dissect the downstream signaling cascades of TRK-induced T-ALL in a murine model and show that T-ALLs induced by deregulated receptor tyrosine kinase signaling acquire activating mutations in Notch1 and lose PTEN during clonal evolution. Some clones additionally lost one allele of the homeodomain transcription factor Cux1. All events independently led to a gradual hyperactivation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling. We dissected the role of the individual mTOR complexes by shRNA knockdown and found that the separate depletion of mTORC1 or mTORC2 reduced the growth of T-ALL blasts, but was not sufficient to induce apoptosis. In contrast, knockdown of the mTOR downstream effector eIF4E caused a striking cytotoxic effect, demonstrating a critical addiction to cap-dependent mRNA-translation. Although high mTORC2-AKT activation is commonly associated with drug-resistance, we demonstrate that T-ALL displaying a strong mTORC2-AKT activation were specifically susceptible to 4EGI-1, an inhibitor of the eIF4E-eIF4G interaction. To decipher the mechanism of 4EGI-1, we performed a genome-wide analysis of mRNAs that are translationally regulated by 4EGI-1 in T-ALL. 4EGI-1 effectively reduced the ribosomal occupancy of mRNAs that were strongly upregulated in T-ALL blasts compared with normal thymocytes including transcripts important for translation, mitochondria and cell cycle progression, such as cyclins and ribosomal proteins. These data suggest that disrupting the eIF4E-eIF4G interaction constitutes a promising therapy strategy in mTOR-deregulated T-cell leukemia.Oncogene advance online publication, 22 September 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.290.Oncogene 09/2014; DOI:10.1038/onc.2014.290 · 8.56 Impact Factor