Post-translational regulation of the Arabidopsis circadian clock through selective proteolysis and phosphorylation of pseudo-response regulator proteins.
ABSTRACT The circadian clock controls the period, phasing, and amplitude of processes that oscillate with a near 24-h rhythm. One core group of clock components in Arabidopsis that controls the pace of the central oscillator is comprised of five PRR (pseudo-response regulator) proteins whose biochemical function in the clock remains unclear. Peak expression of TOC1 (timing of cab expression 1)/PRR1, PRR3, PRR5, PRR7, and PRR9 are each phased differently over the course of the day and loss of any PRR protein alters period. Here we show that, together with TOC1, PRR5 is the only other likely proteolytic substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(ZTL) within this PRR family. We further demonstrate a functional significance for the phosphorylated forms of PRR5, TOC1, and PRR3. Each PRR protein examined is nuclear-localized and is differentially phosphorylated over the circadian cycle. The more highly phosphorylated forms of PRR5 and TOC1 interact best with the F-box protein ZTL (ZEITLUPE), suggesting a mechanism to modulate their proteolysis. In vivo degradation of both PRR5 and ZTL is inhibited by blue light, likely the result of blue light photoperception by ZTL. TOC1 and PRR3 interact in vivo and phosphorylation of both is necessary for their optimal binding in vitro. Additionally, because PRR3 and ZTL both interact with TOC1 in vivo via the TOC1 N terminus, taken together these data suggest that the TOC1/PRR3 phosphorylation-dependent interaction may protect TOC1 from ZTL-mediated degradation, resulting in an enhanced amplitude of TOC1 cycling.
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ABSTRACT: Predicting the biological function of all the genes of an organism is one of the fundamental goals of computational system biology. In the last decade, high-throughput experimental methods for studying the functional interactions between gene products (GPs) have been combined with computational approaches based on Bayesian networks for data integration. The result of these computational approaches is an interaction network with weighted links representing connectivity likelihood between two functionally related GPs. The weighted network generated by these computational approaches can be used to predict annotations for functionally uncharacterized GPs. Here we introduce Weighted Network Predictor (WNP), a novel algorithm for function prediction of biologically uncharacterized GPs. Tests conducted on simulated data show that WNP outperforms other 5 state-of-the-art methods in terms of both specificity and sensitivity and that it is able to better exploit and propagate the functional and topological information of the network. We apply our method to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast and Arabidopsis thaliana networks and we predict Gene Ontology function for about 500 and 10000 uncharacterized GPs respectively.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38767. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Phylogenetic footprint of the plant clock system in angiosperms: evolutionary processes of pseudo-response regulators.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Plant circadian clocks regulate many photoperiodic and diurnal responses that are conserved among plant species. The plant circadian clock system has been uncovered in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, using genetics and systems biology approaches. However, it is still not clear how the clock system had been organized in the evolutionary history of plants. We recently revealed the molecular phylogeny of LHY/CCA1 genes, one of the essential components of the clock system. The aims of this study are to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of angiosperm clock-associated PRR genes, the partner of the LHY/CCA1 genes, and to clarify the evolutionary history of the plant clock system in angiosperm lineages. In the present study, to investigate the molecular phylogeny of PRR genes, we performed two approaches: reconstruction of phylogenetic trees and examination of syntenic relationships. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PRR genes had diverged into three clades prior to the speciation of monocots and eudicots. Furthermore, copy numbers of PRR genes have been independently increased in monocots and eudicots as a result of ancient chromosomal duplication events. Based on the molecular phylogenies of both PRR genes and LHY/CCA1 genes, we inferred the evolutionary process of the plant clock system in angiosperms. This scenario provides evolutionary information that a common ancestor of monocots and eudicots had retained the basic components required for reconstructing a clock system and that the plant circadian clock may have become a more elaborate mechanism after the speciation of monocots and eudicots because of the gene expansion that resulted from polyploidy events.BMC Evolutionary Biology 01/2010; 10:126. · 3.52 Impact Factor
Article: REVEILLE8 and PSEUDO-REPONSE REGULATOR5 form a negative feedback loop within the Arabidopsis circadian clock.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Circadian rhythms provide organisms with an adaptive advantage, allowing them to regulate physiological and developmental events so that they occur at the most appropriate time of day. In plants, as in other eukaryotes, multiple transcriptional feedback loops are central to clock function. In one such feedback loop, the Myb-like transcription factors CCA1 and LHY directly repress expression of the pseudoresponse regulator TOC1 by binding to an evening element (EE) in the TOC1 promoter. Another key regulatory circuit involves CCA1 and LHY and the TOC1 homologs PRR5, PRR7, and PRR9. Purification of EE-binding proteins from plant extracts followed by mass spectrometry led to the identification of RVE8, a homolog of CCA1 and LHY. Similar to these well-known clock genes, expression of RVE8 is circadian-regulated with a dawn phase of expression, and RVE8 binds specifically to the EE. However, whereas cca1 and lhy mutants have short period phenotypes and overexpression of either gene causes arrhythmia, rve8 mutants have long-period and RVE8-OX plants have short-period phenotypes. Light input to the clock is normal in rve8, but temperature compensation (a hallmark of circadian rhythms) is perturbed. RVE8 binds to the promoters of both TOC1 and PRR5 in the subjective afternoon, but surprisingly only PRR5 expression is perturbed by overexpression of RVE8. Together, our data indicate that RVE8 promotes expression of a subset of EE-containing clock genes towards the end of the subjective day and forms a negative feedback loop with PRR5. Thus RVE8 and its homologs CCA1 and LHY function close to the circadian oscillator but act via distinct molecular mechanisms.PLoS Genetics 03/2011; 7(3):e1001350. · 8.69 Impact Factor