Global Impact of Oncogenic Src on a Phosphotyrosine Proteome

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Cancer Biology, Biostatistics, and Biochemistry, and The Proteomics Laboratory of the Mass Spectrometry Research Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
Journal of Proteome Research (Impact Factor: 5). 07/2008; 7(8):3447-60. DOI: 10.1021/pr800187n
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Elevated activity of Src, the first characterized protein-tyrosine kinase, is associated with progression of many human cancers, and Src has attracted interest as a therapeutic target. Src is known to act in various receptor signaling systems to impact cell behavior, yet it remains likely that the spectrum of Src protein substrates relevant to cancer is incompletely understood. To better understand the cellular impact of deregulated Src kinase activity, we extensively applied a mass spectrometry shotgun phosphotyrosine (pTyr) proteomics strategy to obtain global pTyr profiles of Src-transformed mouse fibroblasts as well as their nontransformed counterparts. A total of 867 peptides representing 563 distinct pTyr sites on 374 different proteins were identified from the Src-transformed cells, while 514 peptides representing 275 pTyr sites on 167 proteins were identified from nontransformed cells. Distinct characteristics of the two profiles were revealed by spectral counting, indicative of pTyr site relative abundance, and by complementary quantitative analysis using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). While both pTyr profiles are replete with sites on signaling and adhesion/cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, the Src-transformed profile is more diverse with enrichment in sites on metabolic enzymes and RNA and protein synthesis and processing machinery. Forty-three pTyr sites (32 proteins) are predicted as major biologically relevant Src targets on the basis of frequent identification in both cell populations. This select group, of particular interest as diagnostic biomarkers, includes well-established Src sites on signaling/adhesion/cytoskeletal proteins, but also uncharacterized sites of potential relevance to the transformed cell phenotype.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evolutionary conservation for structure function relations is commonly accepted. Here we hypothesize that closely related single domain paralogous proteins, having similar expression profiles and redundant biochemical core functions, additionally evolved to allow and maintain isoform specific differential regulation by single conserved amino acid substitutions. To substantiate this, we considered two families of closely related actin binding proteins combined with data mining of phosphorylated residues in human and mouse proteins. We show that such residues are identical in other orthologs whereas paralogs have a different, but also conserved, non-phosphorylatable residue at the equivalent positions.
    FEBS letters 02/2012; 586(4):296-302. DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2012.01.018 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Crk-associated substrate (CAS) is a major tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in cells transformed by v-crk and v-src oncogenes and plays an important role in invasiveness of Src-transformed cells. A novel phosphorylation site on CAS, Tyr-12 (Y12) within the ligand-binding hydrophobic pocket of the CAS SH3 domain, was identified and found to be enriched in Src-transformed cells and invasive human carcinoma cells. To study the biological significance of CAS Y12 phosphorylation, phosphomimicking Y12E and nonphosphorylatable Y12F mutants of CAS were studied. The phosphomimicking mutation decreased interaction of the CAS SH3 domain with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and PTP-PEST and reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK. Live-cell imaging showed that green fluorescent protein-tagged CAS Y12E mutant is, in contrast to wild-type or Y12F CAS, excluded from focal adhesions but retains its localization to podosome-type adhesions. Expression of CAS-Y12F in cas-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in hyperphosphorylation of the CAS substrate domain, and this was associated with slower turnover of focal adhesions and decreased cell migration. Moreover, expression of CAS Y12F in Src-transformed cells greatly decreased invasiveness when compared to wild-type CAS expression. These findings reveal an important role of CAS Y12 phosphorylation in the regulation of focal adhesion assembly, cell migration, and invasiveness of Src-transformed cells.
    Molecular biology of the cell 09/2011; 22(22):4256-67. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E11-03-0207 · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the initial effectiveness of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib against HER2 gene-amplified breast cancers, most patients eventually relapse after treatment, implying that tumors acquire mechanisms of drug resistance. To discover these mechanisms, we generated six lapatinib-resistant HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cell lines. In cells that grew in the presence of lapatinib, HER2 autophosphorylation was undetectable, whereas active phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were maintained. To identify networks maintaining these signaling pathways, we profiled the tyrosine phosphoproteome of sensitive and resistant cells using an immunoaffinity-enriched mass spectrometry method. We found increased phosphorylation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and putative Src substrates in several resistant cell lines. Treatment of these resistant cells with Src kinase inhibitors partially blocked PI3K-Akt signaling and restored lapatinib sensitivity. Further, SFK mRNA expression was upregulated in primary HER2+ tumors treated with lapatinib. Finally, the combination of lapatinib and the Src inhibitor AZD0530 was more effective than lapatinib alone at inhibiting pAkt and growth of established HER2-positive BT-474 xenografts in athymic mice. These data suggest that increased Src kinase activity is a mechanism of lapatinib resistance and support the combination of HER2 antagonists with Src inhibitors early in the treatment of HER2+ breast cancers in order to prevent or overcome resistance to HER2 inhibitors.
    Oncogene 04/2011; 30(40):4163-74. DOI:10.1038/onc.2011.130 · 8.56 Impact Factor