Nutritional supplements cross-contaminated and faked with doping substances.

Center for Preventive Doping Research, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933 Cologne, Germany.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry (Impact Factor: 2.71). 07/2008; 43(7):892-902. DOI: 10.1002/jms.1452
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since 1999 several groups have analyzed nutritional supplements with mass spectrometric methods (GC/MS, LC/MS/MS) for contaminations and adulterations with doping substances. These investigations showed that nutritional supplements contained prohibited stimulants as ephedrines, caffeine, methylenedioxymetamphetamie and sibutramine, which were not declared on the labels. An international study performed in 2001 and 2002 on 634 nutritional supplements that were purchased in 13 different countries showed that about 15% of the nonhormonal nutritional supplements were contaminated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (mainly prohormones). Since 2002, also products intentionally faked with high amounts of 'classic' anabolic steroids such as metandienone, stanozolol, boldenone, dehydrochloromethyl-testosterone, oxandrolone etc. have been detected on the nutritional supplement market. These anabolic steroids were not declared on the labels either. The sources of these anabolic steroids are probably Chinese pharmaceutical companies, which sell bulk material of anabolic steroids. In 2005 vitamin C, multivitamin and magnesium tablets were confiscated, which contained cross-contaminations of stanozolol and metandienone. Since 2002 new 'designer' steroids such as prostanozol, methasterone, androstatrienedione etc. have been offered on the nutritional supplement market. In the near future also cross-contaminations with these steroids are expected. Recently a nutritional supplement for weight loss was found to contain the beta2-agonist clenbuterol. The application of such nutritional supplements is connected with a high risk of inadvertent doping cases and a health risk. For the detection of new 'designer' steroids in nutritional supplements, mass spectrometric strategies (GC/MS, LC/MS/MS) are presented.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background As far as we are aware, no previous systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative/descriptive literature on polypharmacy in anabolic-androgenic steroid(s) (AAS) users has been published. Method We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative/descriptive literature gathered from searches in electronic databases and by inspecting reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ polypharmacy. We adhered to the recommendations of the UK Economic and Social Research Council’s qualitative research synthesis manual and the PRISMA guidelines. Results A total of 50 studies published between 1985 and 2014 were included in the analysis. Studies originated from 10 countries although most originated from United States (n = 22), followed by Sweden (n = 7), England only (n = 5), and the United Kingdom (n = 4). It was evident that prior to their debut, AAS users often used other licit and illicit substances. The main ancillary/supplementary substances used were alcohol, and cannabinoids followed by cocaine, growth hormone, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), amphetamine/meth, clenbuterol, ephedra/ephedrine, insulin and thyroxine. Other popular substance classes were analgesics/opioids, dietary/nutritional supplements, and diuretics. Our classification of the various substances used by AAS users resulted in 13 main groups. These non-AAS substances were used mainly to enhance the effects of AAS, combat the side effects of AAS, and for recreational or relaxation purposes, as well as sexual enhancement. Conclusions Our findings corroborate previous suggestions of associations between AAS use and the use of other licit and illicit substances. Efforts must be intensified to combat the debilitating effects of AAS-associated polypharmacy.
    Substance Abuse Treatment Prevention and Policy 03/2015; 10(12). DOI:10.1186/s13011-015-0006-5 · 1.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: W 1967 roku Międzynarodowy Komi-tet Olimpijski (MKOl) powołał Komisję Medyczną do organizowania i nadzoru walki z dopingiem w sporcie. Wkrótce potem Komisja ogłosiła swoją pierwszą listę substancji zabronionych w sporcie. Nie była ona obszerna. Znalazły się na niej jedynie stymulanty, narkotyki (nar-kotyczne środki przeciwbólowe), aminy sympatykomimetyczne, antydepresanty i trankwilizatory (3, 6). W kolejnych latach listę znacznie rozszerzono. Lista substancji zabronionych przez MKOl zawierała wykaz grup substancji, Opis przypadku podany w artykule wskazuje, że ryzyko nieświadomego użycia substancji zabronionej, w związku ze stosowaniem odżywek i suplementów diety, jest duże. Nie ogranicza się ono wyłącznie do przyjmowania preparatów zanieczyszczonych substancjami zabronionymi, ale dotyczy też sytuacji, kiedy substancja zabroniona znajduje się w spisie składników suplementu, choć nie zawsze musi to być oczywiste. Działanie takie, choć nieświadome, grozi poważnymi konsekwencjami dyscyplinarnymi.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The use of performance enhancement substances, such as nutritional supplements, is a growing phenomenon that pervades both competitive and non-competitive sports. The aim of the present study was to assess the interplay between social physique anxiety, nutritional supplement use and related social cognitions in leisure-time exercisers. The sample consisted of 196 gym users who completed a structured questionnaire including measures of social physique anxiety, supplement use and related social cognition variables. The results showed that about half of the respondents had used nutritional supplements at least once in the preceding year. Linear regression analysis indicated that social physique anxiety, past supplement use, attitudes, and personal norms predicted intentions to use dietary supplements. Multiple mediation modeling showed that the effect of social physique anxiety on supplement use intentions was fully mediated by past use. The present study provides novel findings about the effect of social physique anxiety and social cognitive processes on nutritional supplement use among leisure time exercisers.
    03/2013; 2(1):17-23. DOI:10.1016/j.peh.2013.02.001

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 26, 2014