Nutritional supplements cross-contaminated and faked with doping substances

Center for Preventive Doping Research, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933 Cologne, Germany.
Journal of Mass Spectrometry (Impact Factor: 2.38). 07/2008; 43(7):892-902. DOI: 10.1002/jms.1452
Source: PubMed


Since 1999 several groups have analyzed nutritional supplements with mass spectrometric methods (GC/MS, LC/MS/MS) for contaminations and adulterations with doping substances.
These investigations showed that nutritional supplements contained prohibited stimulants as ephedrines, caffeine, methylenedioxymetamphetamie and sibutramine, which were not declared on the labels. An international study performed in 2001 and 2002 on 634 nutritional supplements that were purchased in 13 different countries showed that about 15% of the nonhormonal nutritional supplements were contaminated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (mainly prohormones). Since 2002, also products intentionally faked with high amounts of ‘classic’ anabolic steroids such as metandienone, stanozolol, boldenone, dehydrochloromethyl-testosterone, oxandrolone etc. have been detected on the nutritional supplement market. These anabolic steroids were not declared on the labels either. The sources of these anabolic steroids are probably Chinese pharmaceutical companies, which sell bulk material of anabolic steroids. In 2005 vitamin C, multivitamin and magnesium tablets were confiscated, which contained cross-contaminations of stanozolol and metandienone. Since 2002 new ‘designer’ steroids such as prostanozol, methasterone, androstatrienedione etc. have been offered on the nutritional supplement market. In the near future also cross-contaminations with these steroids are expected. Recently a nutritional supplement for weight loss was found to contain the β2-agonist clenbuterol. The application of such nutritional supplements is connected with a high risk of inadvertent doping cases and a health risk. For the detection of new ‘designer’ steroids in nutritional supplements, mass spectrometric strategies (GC/MS, LC/MS/MS) are presented. Copyright

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    • ", and GC–MS, HPLC-MS, UPLC-QTOF-MS, TLC, immunoassays and capillary electrophoresis in the case of stimulants [14] [15] [21]. It is known that the detection of a new agent in both, urine sample(s) from the anti-doping control tests and supplement(s) available on the black market, is quite common [5] [11] [17]. "
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    • "This specific sample is presented as a product manufactured by British Dispensary in Thailand and is known to have been falsified and marketed all over the world. [3] The main analytical techniques currently implemented to analyze these products are well described in the literature and include liquid chromatography with UV detection, [12] [15] [16] liquid chromatography with tandem mass detection, [4] [6] [13] [15] gas chromatography with mass detection [4,8,11–15] and sometimes nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). [7] These methods are highly specific for the identification of anabolic steroid compounds and provide quantitative information but they involve destructive sample preparation. "
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    Drug Testing and Analysis 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/dta.1843 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    • "Nutritional supplements have been contaminated with various stimulants, β2-agonists, prohormones, ‘classic’ anabolic steroids and non-approved designer steroids.32 33 "
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