The changes of myoepithelial cells of sialoadenitis in submandibular glands in lupus-prone female NZB x NZWF1 (B/WF1) mice, a model for human secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS), were examined ultrastructurally. Inflammatory foci consisting of mainly lymphoid cells (lymphocytes and plasma cells) in the interlobular interstitium began to develop from 18 weeks of ages, and those were found within acini from the age of 25 weeks. These were paralleled with the production of anti-double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies with age. Infiltrated lymphoid cells consisted of CD4+ T cells and Ig+ (or IgG2a+) cells. Electron microscopy revealed destruction of myoepithelial cells with lysis of basement membranes contacted with either lymphocytes or plasma cells. These led to the destruction (degeneration and necrosis) of the epithelium in striated and intercalated ducts and acinar epithelium. Further destruction of those cells occurred by the invasion of lymphocytes into the epithelial layers. Small numbers of apoptotic myoepithelium and duct epithelium from the age of 25 to 36 weeks and an increase of those cells in survived mice at 44 weeks of age were observed. The present study suggests that the myoepithelium may be one of the target cells and that the destruction of myoepithelial cells by infiltrated lymphoid cells may precede the destruction of acinar ducts and epithelium in sialoadenitis in sSS.
"SjS patients with systemic extraepithelial manifestations display low serum levels of the complement component C4 . We have reported  the presence of IgG2a and C3 in basement membranes at inflamed areas but also at noninflamed areas in submandibular glands of B/WF1 mice, suggesting those may affect the function of those organs. Nguyen et al.  reported that inactivation of C3 (elimination of the C3 gene) in the parental C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 strain, a congenic strain of the NOD model, resulted in a diminished or total absence of both preclinical and clinical manifestations during the development and onset of disease, including reduced acinar cell apoptosis, reduced levels of caspase-3, lack of leukocyte infiltration of submandibular glands, reduced synthesis of disease-associated autoantibodies, maintenance of normal glandular architecture, and retention of normal saliva secretion. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by dry eyes and dry mouth due to dacryoadenitis and sialoadenitis with SS-A/Ro and/or SS-B/La autoantibodies in genetically predisposed individuals. Destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands by autoimmune reactions may lead to clinical manifestation. However, the mechanisms behind the decreased volume of secretions in tears and saliva are complex and are not fully understood. Exocrine gland dysfunction may precede autoimmunity (acquired immunity) or represent a process independent from inflammation in the pathogenesis of SjS. The preceded functional and morphologic changes of those tissues by nonimmunologic injury before the development of inflammation at the sites of target organs have been implicated. This paper focuses on the several factors and components relating to glandular dysfunction and morphologic changes by nonimmunologic injury during the preinflammatory phase in mouse model, including the factors which link between innate immunity and adaptive immunity.
BioMed Research International 06/2011; 2011(1110-7243):407031. DOI:10.1155/2011/407031 · 2.71 Impact Factor
"In each organ involved, pathogenesis is quite different. For example, humoral immunity plays a role in capillary damages in glomeruli, lungs, dermal tissues  and other organs whereas cell-mediated immunity develops in interstitium of kidneys, lacrimal, and salivary glands in lupus with sSjS, resulting in damages of those organs . These suggest that therapy focusing on one cytokine (or combination of several cytokines) or one immunocompetent cell seems to be difficult. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE: lupus) is a chronic complicated autoimmune disease and pathogenesis is still unclear. However, key cytokines have been recognized. Interferon (IFN)-γ and also IFNalpha/beta are of particular importance. Depending on the concept that lupus is a helper T(Th)1 disease and that dendritic cells (DCs) determine the direction of lupus, balance shift of Th1/Th2 and immunogenic/tolerogenic DCs is reviewed for therapy. (IFN)-gamma- and IFN-alpha/beta-targeted (gene) therapies are introduced. These consist of Th1/Th2 balance shift and elimination of IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma-related cytokines such as (interleukin)IL-12 and IL-18. Other approaches include suppression of immunocompetent cells, normalization of abnormal T-cell function, costimulation blockade, B lymphocyte stimulator (Blys) blockade, and suppression of nephritic kidney inflammation. Moreover, balance shift of IFN-alpha/beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha together with regulatory T(Treg) cells are briefly introduced. Clinical application will be discussed.
BioMed Research International 08/2010; 2010(144). DOI:10.1155/2010/461641 · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The maintenance mechanisms of peripheral tolerance by CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells before the development of sialoadenitis in secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS) are not well understood. The aim of the present study is to examine the effect of reduction of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells on the development of sialoadenitis during the early life in female NZB x NZWF(1) (B/WF(1)) mice, a model for human sSS.
Female B/WF(1) mice at 3 days after birth were treated with either anti-mouse CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells rat IgG(1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) or Rat IgG(1)(control). At 25 weeks of age, autoantibodies against nucleus and cytoplasm of ductal epithelial and myoepithelial cells, and histpathology of submandibular glands were examined in the mAb-treated and control groups. Also the development of anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies was examined until 25 weeks of age in both groups.
The mAb-treated group showed severe lesions with the development of autoantibodies compared to the control group.
The present results suggest that peripheral CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells may, at least in part, contribute to down-regulate the development of sialoadenitis in submandibular glands of lupus-prone female B/WF(1) mice during their early life.
Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 02/2009; 38(2):234-40. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0714.2008.00730.x · 1.93 Impact Factor
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