5‐HT functioning and aggression in children with ADHD and disruptive behaviour disorders

Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental (Impact Factor: 2.1). 07/2008; 23(5):438. DOI: 10.1002/hup.948
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a method of reducing central nervous serotonin (5-HT) synthesis in humans by administering an amino acid (AA) beverage lacking in tryptophan (TRP), the physiological precursor of 5-HT. However, to date, the use of conventional ATD protocols in children and adolescents was limited due to frequently observed side effects (e.g., vomiting and nausea). This study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous system 5-HT synthesis on plasma concentrations of relevant AAs and TRP influx into the brain in 24 healthy young adults using the ATD procedure Moja-De, a test protocol that has been used in preliminary research in youths. Twenty-four healthy participants received ATD and a TRP-balanced amino acid load (BAL) using a randomized double-blind within-subject crossover design. Plasma concentrations of the relevant AAs that compete with TRP on the same transport system were assessed at baseline and 90, 180, and 240 min after ATD/BAL intake. TRP influx across the blood-brain barrier was calculated using Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a correction for multiple substrate competition, indicating a significant decrease in TRP influx into the central nervous system under Moja-De. ATD Moja-De decreased TRP influx into the brain and central nervous system 5-HT synthesis safely and effectively and was well tolerated, allowing it to be used in children and adolescents. Future research into other secondary, compensatory effects induced by ATD in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders and healthy populations is needed. ATD Moja-De allows this type of research with a focus on a developmental viewpoint.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 05/2012; 119(9):1037-45. DOI:10.1007/s00702-012-0793-z · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deficiencies in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission have frequently been linked to altered attention and memory processes. With attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) being associated with impaired attention and working memory, this study investigated the effects of a diminished 5-HT turnover achieved by rapid tryptophan depletion (RTD) on attentional performance in children and adolescents with ADHD. Twenty-two male patients with ADHD (aged 9-15 yr) received the RTD procedure Moja-De and a tryptophan (Trp)-balanced placebo (Pla) in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject crossover design on two separate study days. Lapses of attention (LA) and phasic alertness (PA) were assessed within the test battery for attentional performance under depleted and sham-depleted conditions 120 (T1), 220 (T2) and 300 (T3) min after intake of RTD/Pla. At T1 there was a significant main effect for RTD, indicating more LA under intake of a Trp-balanced Pla compared to diminished 5-HT neurotransmission. For T2/T3 there were no such effects. PA was not affected by the factors RTD/Pla and time. Interactions of 5-HT with other neurotransmitters as possible underlying neurochemical processes could be subject to further investigations involving healthy controls as regards altered attentional performance in children and adolescents.
    The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 03/2010; 13(7):933-41. DOI:10.1017/S146114571000012X · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the brain has been linked to disturbed memory processes. The present study investigated the effects of diminished central nervous 5-HT synthesis as achieved by an acute dietary tryptophan depletion (ATD) on verbal declarative episodic memory in young women while controlling for the effects of female sex hormones. Eighteen healthy females (aged 20-31 years) participated in a within-subject repeated measures study, with two separate days of assessment spaced at least one individual menstrual cycle apart. On one day, participants were subjected to ATD, thus lowering central nervous 5-HT synthesis. The other day participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL = control condition). The study was randomized, counterbalanced and double blind in terms of ATD/BAL administration. Measurements took place in the early follicular phase of the participants' menstrual cycle. Estrogen, FSH and LH levels were assessed at baseline. Verbal declarative episodic memory was assessed using a structured word-learning task. Short-term memory, as indexed by immediate recall, was reduced after ATD intake, whereas delayed recall and recognition after a 25-min delay did not show any differences after intake of ATD or BAL. In young women, verbal short-term memory function was more vulnerable to ATD than consolidation processes. In light of the possible interplay between female sex hormones and 5-HT, further studies comparing different menstrual cycle phases are needed.
    Amino Acids 09/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00726-013-1582-1 · 3.65 Impact Factor