Macrophage Dysfunction and Susceptibility to Pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in Surfactant Protein C-Deficient Mice

Division of Pulmonary Biology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 08/2008; 181(1):621-8. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.181.1.621
Source: PubMed


To determine the role of surfactant protein C (SP-C) in host defense, SP-C-deficient (Sftpc-/-) mice were infected with the pulmonary pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa by intratracheal injection. Survival of young, postnatal day 14 Sftpc-/- mice was decreased in comparison to Sftpc+/+ mice. The sensitivity to Pseudomonas bacteria was specific to the 129S6 strain of Sftpc-/- mice, a strain that spontaneously develops interstitial lung disease-like lung pathology with age. Pulmonary bacterial load and leukocyte infiltration were increased in the lungs of Sftpc-/- mice 24 h after infection. Early influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the lungs of uninfected newborn Sftpc-/- mice relative to Sftpc+/+ mice indicate that the lack of SP-C promotes proinflammatory responses in the lung. Mucin expression, as indicated by Alcian blue staining, was increased in the airways of Sftpc-/- mice following infection. Phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages from Sftpc-/- mice was reduced. The uptake of fluorescent beads in vitro and the number of bacteria phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages in vivo was decreased in the Sftpc-/- mice. Alveolar macrophages from Sftpc-/- mice expressed markers of alternative activation that are associated with diminished pathogen response and advancing pulmonary fibrosis. These findings implicate SP-C as a modifier of alveolar homeostasis. SP-C plays an important role in innate host defense of the lung, enhancing macrophage-mediated Pseudomonas phagocytosis, clearance and limiting pulmonary inflammatory responses.

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Available from: Gary F Ross, Feb 18, 2015
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    • "In transgenic mice, reduction in SP-B expression and the associated abnormalities in reducing surface tension evoked an inflammatory response in alveolar macrophages and alveolar type II cells (Ikegami et al., 2005). SP-C-deficient mice are susceptible to bacterial and viral infections and they suffer from excessive inflammation (Glasser et al., 2008). Surfactant phospholipids also possess immune-modulating properties. "
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    ABSTRACT: Beside alveoli, surface active material plays an important role in the airway physiology. In the upper airways it primarily serves in local defense. Lower airway surfactant stabilizes peripheral airways, provides the transport and defense, has barrier and edematous functions and possesses direct relaxant effect on the smooth muscle. We tested in vitro the effect of two surfactant preparations Curosurf(®) and Alveofact(®) on the precontracted smooth muscle of intra- and extra-pulmonary airways. Relaxation was more pronounced for lung tissue strip containing bronchial smooth muscle as the primary site of surfactant effect. The study does not confirm the participation of ATP-dependent potassium channels and cAMP-regulated epithelial chloride channels known as CFTR chloride channels, or nitric oxide involvement in contractile response of smooth muscle to surfactant.By controlling wall thickness and airway diameter, pulmonary surfactant is an important component of airway physiology. Thus, surfactant dysfunction may be included in pathophysiology of asthma, COPD, or other diseases with bronchial obstruction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology 01/2015; 209. DOI:10.1016/j.resp.2015.01.004 · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    • "Some SFTPC patient histories document recurrent infections. These findings are supported by a bacterial infection study in the Sftpc -/- mice demonstrating reduced clearance of the respiratory pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa[33]. Taken together these reports identify a protective role for SP-C during both bacterial and viral infections. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Individuals with deficiencies of pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C) develop interstitial lung disease (ILD) that is exacerbated by viral infections including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). SP-C gene targeted mice (Sftpc -/-) lack SP-C, develop an ILD-like disease and are susceptible to infection with RSV. Methods In order to determine requirements for correction of RSV induced injury we have generated compound transgenic mice where SP-C expression can be induced on the Sftpc -/- background (SP-C/Sftpc -/-) by the administration of doxycycline (dox). The pattern of induced SP-C expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and processing by Western blot analysis. Tissue and cellular inflammation was measured following RSV infection and the RSV-induced cytokine response of isolated Sftpc +/+ and -/- type II cells determined. Results After 5 days of dox administration transgene SP-C mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR in the lungs of two independent lines of bitransgenic SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice (lines 55.3 and 54.2). ProSP-C was expressed in the lung, and mature SP-C was detected by Western blot analysis of the lavage fluid from both lines of SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice. Induced SP-C expression was localized to alveolar type II cells by immunostaining with an antibody to proSP-C. Line 55.3 SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice were maintained on or off dox for 7 days and infected with 2.6x107 RSV pfu. On day 3 post RSV infection total inflammatory cell counts were reduced in the lavage of dox treated 55.3 SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice (p = 0.004). The percentage of neutrophils was reduced (p = 0.05). The viral titers of lung homogenates from dox treated 55.3 SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice were decreased relative to 55.3 SP-C/Sftpc -/- mice without dox (p = 0.01). The cytokine response of Sftpc -/- type II cells to RSV was increased over that of Sftpc +/+ cells. Conclusions Transgenic restoration of SP-C reduced inflammation and improved viral clearance in the lungs of SP-C deficient mice. The loss of SP-C in alveolar type II cells compromises their response to infection. These findings show that the restoration of SP-C in Sftpc -/- mice in response to RSV infection is a useful model to determine parameters for therapeutic intervention.
    Respiratory research 02/2013; 14(1):19. DOI:10.1186/1465-9921-14-19 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    • "Cellular surface topographies have been recognized as markers of both cell functional differentiation [23], [24] and maturation, specifically for DCs [22]. Heterogeneous enlargement of cell volume was frequently observed in activated-T cells [35], [36], DCs upon maturation [22], [37] and macrophages in infections [38], [39]. These changes in cell size are often accompanied by cellular height (peak to valley distance), cell surface ruffle (RMS roughness) and protrusion formation (dendrites in BMDCs) [22]–[24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abnormal inflammations are central therapeutic targets in numerous infectious and autoimmune diseases. Dendritic cells (DCs) are involved in these inflammations, serving as both antigen presenters and proinflammatory cytokine providers. As an immuno-suppressor applied to the therapies of multiple sclerosis and allograft transplantation, fingolimod (FTY720) was shown to affect DC migration and its crosstalk with T cells. We posit FTY720 can induce an anergy-polarized phenotype switch on DCs in vitro, especially upon endotoxic activation. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC) activation model was employed to test FTY720-induced phenotypic changes on immature and mature DCs. Specifically, methods for morphology, nanostructure, cytokine production, phagocytosis, endocytosis and specific antigen presentation studies were used. FTY720 induced significant alterations of surface markers, as well as decline of shape indices, cell volume, surface roughness in LPS-activated mature BMDCs. These phenotypic, morphological and topographical changes were accompanied by FTY720-mediated down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 and MCP-1. Together with suppressed nitric oxide (NO) production and CCR7 transcription in FTY720-treated BMDCs with or without LPS activation, an inhibitory mechanism of NO and cytokine reciprocal activation was suggested. This implication was supported by the impaired phagocytotic, endocytotic and specific antigen presentation abilities observed in the FTY720-treated BMDCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated FTY720 can induce anergy-polarization in both immature and LPS-activated mature BMDCs. A possible mechanism is FTY720-mediated reciprocal suppression on the intrinsic activation pathway and cytokine production with endpoint exhibitions on phagocytosis, endocytosis, antigen presentation as well as cellular morphology and topography.
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e34830. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0034830 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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