Activation of the JAK/STAT-1 signaling pathway by IFN-gamma can down-regulate functional expression of the MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor for IgG.

Laboratory of Immunology, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 08/2008; 181(1):449-63. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.181.1.449
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Expression of many MHC genes is enhanced at the transcriptional or posttranscriptional level following exposure to the cytokine IFN-gamma. However, in this study we found that IFN-gamma down-regulated the constitutive expression of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), an MHC class I-related molecule that functions to transport maternal IgG and protect IgG and albumin from degradation. Epithelial cell, macrophage-like THP-1 cell, and freshly isolated human PBMC exposure to IFN-gamma resulted in a significant decrease of FcRn expression as assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. The down-regulation of FcRn was not caused by apoptosis or the instability of FcRn mRNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel mobility shift assays showed that STAT-1 bound to an IFN-gamma activation site in the human FcRn promoter region. Luciferase expression from an FcRn promoter-luciferase reporter gene construct was not altered in JAK1- and STAT-1-deficient cells following exposure to IFN-gamma, whereas expression of JAK1 or STAT-1 protein restored the IFN-gamma inhibitory effect on luciferase activity. The repressive effect of IFN-gamma on the FcRn promoter was selectively reversed or blocked by mutations of the core nucleotides in the IFN-gamma activation site sequence and by overexpression of the STAT-1 inhibitor PIAS1 or the dominant negative phospho-STAT-1 mutations at Tyr-701 and/or Ser-727 residues. Furthermore, STAT-1 might down-regulate FcRn transcription through sequestering the transcriptional coactivator CREB binding protein/p300. Functionally, IFN-gamma stimulation dampened bidirectional transport of IgG across a polarized Calu-3 lung epithelial monolayer. Taken together, our results indicate that the JAK/STAT-1 signaling pathway was necessary and sufficient to mediate the down-regulation of FcRn gene expression by IFN-gamma.

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    ABSTRACT: The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was first found to be responsible for transporting antibodies of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class from the mother to the fetus or neonate as well as for protecting IgG from intracellular catabolism. However, it has now become apparent that the same receptor also binds albumin and plays a fundamental role in homeostatic regulation of both IgG and albumin, as FcRn is expressed in many different cell types and organs at diverse body sites. Thus, to gain a complete understanding of the biological function of each ligand, and also their distribution in the body, an in-depth characterization of how FcRn binds and regulates the transport of both ligands is necessary. Importantly, such knowledge is also relevant when developing new drugs, as IgG and albumin are increasingly utilized in therapy. This review discusses our current structural and biological understanding of the relationship between FcRn and its ligands, with a particular focus on albumin and design of albumin-based therapeutics.
    Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:682. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2014.00682
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