Article

A function for IL-7R for CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T regulatory cells.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Diabetes Research Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 08/2008; 181(1):225-34.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The IL-2/IL-2R interaction is important for development and peripheral homeostasis of T regulatory (Treg) cells. IL-2- and IL-2R-deficient mice are not completely devoid of Foxp3+ cells, but rather lack population of mature CD4+CD25+Foxp3high Treg cells and contain few immature CD4+CD25-Foxp3low T cells. Interestingly, common gamma chain (gammac) knockout mice have been shown to have a near complete absence of Foxp3+ Treg cells, including the immature CD25-Foxp3low subset. Therefore, other gammac-cytokine(s) must be critically important during thymic development of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells apart from the IL-2. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the gammac-cytokines IL-7 or IL-15 normally contribute to expression of Foxp3 and Treg cell production. These studies revealed that mice double deficient in IL-2Rbeta and IL-7Ralpha contained a striking lack in the CD4+Foxp3+ population and the Treg cell defect recapitulated the gammac knockout mice. In the absence of IL-7R signaling, IL-15/IL-15R interaction is dispensable for the production of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Treg cells, indicating that normal thymic Treg cell production likely depends on signaling through both IL-2 and IL-7 receptors. Selective thymic reconstitution of IL-2Rbeta in mice double deficient in IL-2Rbeta and IL-7Ralpha established that IL-2Rbeta is dominant and sufficient to restore production of Treg cells. Furthermore, the survival of peripheral CD4+Foxp3low cells in IL-2Rbeta-/- mice appears to depend upon IL-7R signaling. Collectively, these data indicate that IL-7R signaling contributes to Treg cell development and peripheral homeostasis.

0 Followers
 · 
231 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a mainstay for current immunotherapeutic protocols but its usefulness in patients is reduced by severe toxicities and because IL-2 facilitates regulatory T (Treg) cell development. IL-21 is a type I cytokine acting as a potent T-cell co-mitogen but less efficient than IL-2 in sustaining T-cell proliferation. Using various in vitro models for T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent human T-cell proliferation, we found that IL-21 synergized with IL-2 to make CD4+ and CD8+ T cells attain a level of expansion that was impossible to obtain with IL-2 alone. Synergy was mostly evident in naive CD4+ cells. IL-2 and tumour-released transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) are the main environmental cues that cooperate in Treg cell induction in tumour patients. Interleukin-21 hampered Treg cell expansion induced by IL-2/TGF-β combination in naive CD4+ cells by facilitating non-Treg over Treg cell proliferation from the early phases of cell activation. Conversely, IL-21 did not modulate the conversion of naive activated CD4+ cells into Treg cells in the absence of cell division. Treg cell reduction was related to persistent activation of Stat3, a negative regulator of Treg cells associated with down-modulation of IL-2/TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad2/3, a positive regulator of Treg cells. In contrast to previous studies, IL-21 was completely ineffective in counteracting the suppressive activity of Treg cells on naive and memory, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Present data provide proof-of-concept for evaluating a combinatorial approach that would reduce the IL-2 needed to sustain T-cell proliferation efficiently, thereby reducing toxicity and controlling a tolerizing mechanism responsible for the contraction of the T-cell response.
    Immunology 05/2013; 139(1). DOI:10.1111/imm.12061 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are suppressive T cells that have an essential role in maintaining the balance between immune activation and tolerance. Their development, either in the thymus, periphery, or experimentally in vitro, and stability and function all depend on the right mix of environmental stimuli. This review focuses on the effects of cytokines, metabolites, and the microbiome on both human and mouse Treg biology. The role of cytokines secreted by innate and adaptive immune cells in directing Treg development and shaping their function is well established. New and emerging data suggest that metabolites, such as retinoic acid, and microbial products, such as short-chain fatty acids, also have a critical role in guiding the functional specialization of Tregs. Overall, the complex interaction between distinct environmental stimuli results in unique, and in some cases tissue-specific, tolerogenic environments. Understanding the conditions that favor Treg induction, accumulation, and function is critical to defining the pathophysiology of many immune-mediated diseases and to developing new therapeutic interventions.
    Frontiers in Immunology 02/2015; 6:61. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00061
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We generated thymic stromal lymphopoietin R-chain deficient apolipoprotein E-double knockout (ApoE-TSLPR DKO) mice to directly explore the role of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in atherogenesis.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 08/2014; 76. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2014.07.003 · 5.22 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download
Available from