Effective doses in radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: A catalog
ABSTRACT Medical uses of radiation have grown very rapidly over the past decade, and, as of 2007, medical uses represent the largest source of exposure to the U.S. population. Most physicians have difficulty assessing the magnitude of exposure or potential risk. Effective dose provides an approximate indicator of potential detriment from ionizing radiation and should be used as one parameter in evaluating the appropriateness of examinations involving ionizing radiation. The purpose of this review is to provide a compilation of effective doses for radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures. Standard radiographic examinations have average effective doses that vary by over a factor of 1000 (0.01-10 mSv). Computed tomographic examinations tend to be in a more narrow range but have relatively high average effective doses (approximately 2-20 mSv), and average effective doses for interventional procedures usually range from 5-70 mSv. Average effective dose for most nuclear medicine procedures varies between 0.3 and 20 mSv. These doses can be compared with the average annual effective dose from background radiation of about 3 mSv.
SourceAvailable from: Rosa Coelho[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease (CD) patients undergo many radiological studies employing ionizing radiation for diagnosis and management purposes. Our aim was to assess the total radiation exposure of our patients over the years, to estimate the risk factors for exposure to high doses, and to correlate radiation exposure to immunosuppression. The cumulative effective dose of radiation (CEDR) was calculated multiplying the number of imaging studies by the effective dose of each examination. A total of 451 patients with CD (226 female) were followed during 11.0 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 6.0-16.0), with 52.1% of the patients being classified with penetrating (B3) and 38.6% being steroid-dependent. About 16% were exposed to high-radiation dose levels (CEDR >50 mSv) and 4% were exposed to CEDR >100 mSv. The mean CEDR between age 26 and 35 years was 12.539 mSv and a significant dose of radiation (over 50 mSv) was achieved at a median age of 40 (IQR: 29.0-47.0). Abdominal-pelvic computed tomography scan was the examination that contributed the most for CEDR. Patients with B3 phenotype, previous surgery, azathioprine, and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α therapy were exposed earlier on the course of the disease to CEDR >50 mSv (p < 0.001). The value of CEDR in the patients under immunosuppression mainly increased in the first year of immunosuppression. Penetrating phenotype, abdominal surgery, steroid resistance or steroid dependence, and treatment with anti-TNF-α and azathioprine were predictive factors for high CEDR. It was also demonstrated that immunosuppression and anti-TNF-α treatment were followed by a sustained increment of radiation exposure and that a significant dose of radiation was achieved <40 years of age.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2015; DOI:10.3109/00365521.2015.1037344 · 2.33 Impact Factor
Hypertension 05/2015; DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.04801 · 7.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Imaging of the renal system is performed with different techniques depending mainly on clinical symptoms and signs. This study intended to evaluate patient effective doses undergoing renal scintigraphy (technetium-99m-diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid), computed tomography urography (CTU) and intravenous urography (IVU). A total of 60 patients were evaluated using Orbiter 37 Gamma camera single head, dual-slice CT scanner and conventional X-ray machine with computed radiography (CR) processing unit. Patients effective dose were estimated using the administered activity, DosCal software and dose length product value for renal scan, IVU and CTU procedures, respectively. Patients' effective doses during renal scan, CTU and IVU procedures were 0.78 ± 0.18, 2.53±0.94 and 1.81±0.20 mSv, in that order. Patients were exposed to a higher effective dose during CTU compared with other two procedures. Patient doses depend on the size of patient, the type of scanner and the imaging protocol used. Effective doses considered low compared with previous studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.Radiation Protection Dosimetry 04/2015; DOI:10.1093/rpd/ncv115 · 0.86 Impact Factor