Article

Effective Doses in Radiology and Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine: A Catalog 1

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, New Mexico Veterans Administration Healthcare System, 1501 San Pedro Blvd, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA.
Radiology (Impact Factor: 6.21). 08/2008; 248(1):254-63. DOI: 10.1148/radiol.2481071451
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Medical uses of radiation have grown very rapidly over the past decade, and, as of 2007, medical uses represent the largest source of exposure to the U.S. population. Most physicians have difficulty assessing the magnitude of exposure or potential risk. Effective dose provides an approximate indicator of potential detriment from ionizing radiation and should be used as one parameter in evaluating the appropriateness of examinations involving ionizing radiation. The purpose of this review is to provide a compilation of effective doses for radiologic and nuclear medicine procedures. Standard radiographic examinations have average effective doses that vary by over a factor of 1000 (0.01-10 mSv). Computed tomographic examinations tend to be in a more narrow range but have relatively high average effective doses (approximately 2-20 mSv), and average effective doses for interventional procedures usually range from 5-70 mSv. Average effective dose for most nuclear medicine procedures varies between 0.3 and 20 mSv. These doses can be compared with the average annual effective dose from background radiation of about 3 mSv.

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    • "Onepossibleexplanationfortheamountofpatients exposedtoaCEDR>50mSvisthefactthattheywere treatedatatertiaryreferencecenter,whichmore frequentlydealswithsevereandrefractorypatients. Evenso,themajorityofpatientswereexposedtoa CEDR<50mSvofionizationradiationduringthe totalfollow-upperiodand4%wereexposedto >100mSv.Theeffectsofionizingradiationshould notbeunderestimated,consideringtheLNTmodel andtheevidenceforanincreaseinsomecancerrisks atdosesabove~5mSv[19] [21]. Brenneretal.showedthatradiation-inducedcan- "
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    • "These results are significantly lower than standard doses for the film medical radiography. For example, the fluoroscopy norm is 0.8 mSv, the radiography norm is 0.4 mSv, the roentgenoscopy norm is 10 mSv [8]. "
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    • "Although this method is readily accessible and costeffective, its diagnostic performance is not satisfactory for evaluating small anatomic locations, such as the intervertebral foramen (IVF) and facet joints. Furthermore , the dose of radiation is approximately 2.1 millisievert (mSv) for the anteroposterior view and 1.5 mSv for the lateral view [3] [4], which are considerably higher than doses for plain-film chest radiography that uses 0.15 mSv. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) scans of the lumbar spine (CTLS) with multiplanar reformation show the facet joints, intervertebral disc (IVD), and foramina better than conventional plain films. "
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