Prostate-specific kallikreins-2 and -4 enhance the proliferation of DU-145 prostate cancer cells through protease-activated receptors-1 and -2.
ABSTRACT A major characteristic of prostate cancer is the elevation of serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (hK3) and hK2, which are tumor markers that correlate with advancing stages of disease. Including hK4, these three kallikrein serine proteases are almost exclusively produced by the prostate. Prostate cancer cells have been recently shown to overexpress protease-activated receptors (PAR), which can be potentially activated by kallikreins and can regulate tumor growth. Here, we show that recombinant hK2 and hK4 activate ERK1/2 signaling of DU-145, PC-3, and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, which express both PAR1 and PAR2. These kallikreins also stimulate the proliferation of DU-145 cells. Pretreatment of hK2 and hK4 with the serine protease inhibitor, aprotinin, blocks the responses in DU-145 cells, and small interfering RNA against PAR1 and PAR2 also inhibits ERK1/2 signaling. To determine which PAR is activated by hK2 and hK4, a cell line that expresses a single PAR, a PAR1 knockout mouse lung fibroblast cell line transfected with PAR1 (KOLF-PAR1) or PAR2 (KOLF-PAR2) was used. hK4 activates both PAR1 and PAR2, whereas hK2 activates PAR2. hK4 generates more phosphorylated ERK1/2 than hK2. These data indicate that prostatic kallikreins (hK2 and hK4) directly stimulate prostate cancer cell proliferation through PAR1 and/or PAR2 and may be potentially important targets for future drug therapy for prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Including the true tissue kallikrein KLK1, kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) represent a family of fifteen mammalian serine proteases. While the physiological roles of several KLKs have been at least partially elucidated, their activation and regulation remain largely unclear. This obscurity may be related to the fact that a given KLK fulfills many different tasks in diverse fetal and adult tissues, and consequently, the timescale of some of their physiological actions varies significantly. To date, a variety of endogenous inhibitors that target distinct KLKs have been identified. Among them are the attenuating Zn(2+) ions, active site-directed proteinaceous inhibitors, such as serpins and the Kazal-type inhibitors, or the huge, unspecific compartment forming α(2)-macroglobulin. Failure of these inhibitory systems can lead to certain pathophysiological conditions. One of the most prominent examples is the Netherton syndrome, which is caused by dysfunctional domains of the Kazal-type inhibitor LEKTI-1 which fail to appropriately regulate KLKs in the skin. Small synthetic inhibitory compounds and natural polypeptidic exogenous inhibitors have been widely employed to characterize the activity and substrate specificity of KLKs and to further investigate their structures and biophysical properties. Overall, this knowledge leads not only to a better understanding of the physiological tasks of KLKs, but is also a strong fundament for the synthesis of small compound drugs and engineered biomolecules for pharmaceutical approaches. In several types of cancer, KLKs have been found to be overexpressed, which makes them clinically relevant biomarkers for prognosis and monitoring. Thus, down regulation of excessive KLK activity in cancer and in skin diseases by small inhibitor compounds may represent attractive therapeutical approaches.Biochimie 11/2010; 92(11):1546-67. · 3.02 Impact Factor