Zinc alpha 2-glycoprotein: a multidisciplinary protein.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025, India.
Molecular Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 4.5). 07/2008; 6(6):892-906. DOI: 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-07-2195
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Zinc alpha 2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a protein of interest because of its ability to play many important functions in the human body, including fertilization and lipid mobilization. After the discovery of this molecule, during the last 5 decades, various studies have been documented on its structure and functions, but still, it is considered as a protein with an unknown function. Its expression is regulated by glucocorticoids. Due to its high sequence homology with lipid-mobilizing factor and high expression in cancer cachexia, it is considered as a novel adipokine. On the other hand, structural organization and fold is similar to MHC class I antigen-presenting molecule; hence, ZAG may have a role in the expression of the immune response. The function of ZAG under physiologic and cancerous conditions remains mysterious but is considered as a tumor biomarker for various carcinomas. There are several unrelated functions that are attributed to ZAG, such as RNase activity, regulation of melanin production, hindering tumor proliferation, and transport of nephritic by-products. This article deals with the discussion of the major aspects of ZAG from its gene structure to function and metabolism.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with their highly tunable properties are promising implantable materials, but as with all non-biological materials, they elicit a foreign body response (FBR). Recent studies, however, have shown that incorporating the oligopeptide RGD into PEG hydrogels reduces the FBR. To better understand the mechanisms involved and the role of RGD in mediating the FBR, PEG, PEG-RGD and PEG-RDG hydrogels were investigated. After a 28-day subcutaneous implantation in mice, a thinner and less dense fibrous capsule formed around PEG-RGD hydrogels, while PEG and PEG-RDG hydrogels exhibited stronger, but similar FBRs. Protein adsorption to the hydrogels, which is considered the first step in the FBR, was also characterized. In vitro experiments confirmed that serum proteins adsorbed to PEG-based hydrogels and were necessary to promote macrophage adhesion to PEG and PEG-RDG, but not PEG-RGD hydrogels. Proteins adsorbed to the hydrogels in vivo were identified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The majority (245) of the total proteins (≥300) that were identified was present on all hydrogels with many proteins being associated with wounding and acute inflammation. These findings suggest that the FBR to PEG hydrogels may be mediated by the presence of inflammatory-related proteins adsorbed to the surface, but that macrophages appear to sense the underlying chemistry, which for RGD improves the FBR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Biomaterials 02/2015; 41C:26-36. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.11.026 · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Keratoconus (KC) is a bilateral degenerative disease of the cornea characterized by corneal bulging, stromal thinning, and scarring. The etiology of the disease is unknown. In this study, we identified a new biomarker for KC that is present in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, tear samples were collected from age-matched controls with no eye disease (n = 36) and KC diagnosed subjects (n = 17). Samples were processed for proteomics using LC-MS/MS. In vitro, cells were isolated from controls (Human Corneal Fibroblasts-HCF) and KC subjects (Human Keratoconus Cells-HKC) and stimulated with a Vitamin C (VitC) derivative for 4 weeks, and with one of the three transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) isoforms. Samples were analyzed using real-time PCR and Western Blots. By using proteomics analysis, the Gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) or prolactin-inducible protein (PIP) was found to be the best independent biomarker able to discriminate between KC and controls. The intensity of GCDFP-15/PIP was significantly higher in healthy subjects compared to KC-diagnosed. Similar findings were seen in vitro, using a 3D culture model. All three TGF-β isoforms significantly down-regulated the expression of GCDFP-15/PIP. Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein (AZGP1), a protein that binds to PIP, was identified by proteomics and cell culture to be highly regulated. In this study by different complementary techniques we confirmed the potential role of GCDFP-15/PIP as a novel biomarker for KC disease. It is likely that exploring the GCDFP-15/PIP-AZGP1 interactions will help better understand the mechanism of KC disease.
    PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e113310. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113310 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the levels of zinc-α-2-glycoprotein (ZAG) among Omani AIDS patients receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART).
    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 08/2014; 4(8):610-3. DOI:10.12980/APJTB.4.201414B126