Dietary glutamine supplementation increases the activity of peritoneal macrophages and hemopoiesis in early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin.
ABSTRACT Infants who are breast-fed have been shown to have a lower incidence of certain infectious diseases compared with formula-fed infants. Glutamine is one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk and it is essential for the function of immune system cells such as macrophages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine supplementation on the function of peritoneal macrophages and on hemopoiesis in early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Mice were weaned at 14 d of age and distributed to 2 groups and fed either a glutamine-free diet (n = 16) or a glutamine-supplemented diet (+Gln) (n = 16). Both diets were isonitrogenous (with addition of a mixture of nonessential amino acids) and isocaloric. At d 21, 2 subgroups of mice (n = 16) were intraperitoneally injected with BCG and all mice were killed at d 28. Plasma, muscle and liver glutamine concentrations and muscle glutamine synthetase activity were not affected by diet or inoculation with BCG. The +Gln diet led to increased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood (P < 0.05) and granulocyte and lymphocyte counts in the bone marrow and spleen (P < 0.05). The +Gln diet increased spreading and adhesion capacities, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) syntheses and the phagocytic and fungicidal activity of peritoneal macrophages (P < 0.05). The interaction between the +Gln diet and BCG inoculation increased the area under the curve of interleukin (IL)-1beta and TNFalpha syntheses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the intake of glutamine increases the function of peritoneal macrophages and hemopoiesis in early-weaned and BCG-inoculated mice. These data have important implications for the design of breast milk substitutes for human infants.
SourceAvailable from: Daniela Moura de Oliveira[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract To investigate the effect of Yerba Mate (YM) aqueous extract intake on the NF-kB pathway and AKT expression in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of rats submitted to a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Wistar rats were fed a control (CON) (n = 24) or a HFD (n = 24) for 12 weeks. Afterwards, rats received YM daily (1 g/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Intake of YM aqueous extract reduced body weight gain (p < 0.05) and total blood cholesterol (p < 0.05) in the HFD group in comparison to the non-treated HFD group. HFD group demonstrated an increased glycemic response at 5 and 10 min after insulin injection. YM decreased the ratio between phosphorylated and total kinase inhibitor of κB (IKK), increased the ratio of phosphorylated to total form of protein kinase B (AKT) and reduced NF-κB phosphorylation in the liver of the HFD group. Our data suggest a beneficial role of YM in improving metabolic dysfunctions induced by HFD.International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 08/2014; DOI:10.3109/09637486.2014.945153 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with l-glutamine plus l-alanine (GLN+ALA), both in the free form and l-alanyl-l-glutamine dipeptide (DIP) in endotoxemic mice. B6.129 F2/J mice were subjected to endotoxemia (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide [LPS], 5 mg/kg, LPS group) and orally supplemented for 48 h with either l-glutamine (1 g/kg) plus l-alanine (0.61 g/kg) (GLN+ALA-LPS group) or 1.49 g/kg DIP (DIP-LPS group). Plasma glutamine, cytokines, and lymphocyte proliferation were measured. Liver and skeletal muscle glutamine, glutathione (GSH), oxidized GSH (GSSG), tissue lipoperoxidation (TBARS), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB-interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1)-Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 pathway also were determined. Endotoxemia depleted plasma (by 71%), muscle (by 44%), and liver (by 49%) glutamine concentrations (relative to the control group), which were restored in both GLN+ALA-LPS and DIP-LPS groups (P < 0.05). Supplemented groups reestablished GSH content, intracellular redox status (GSSG/GSH ratio), and TBARS concentration in muscle and liver (P < 0.05). T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation increased in supplemented groups compared with controls and LPS group (P < 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 β, and IL-10 increased in LPS group but were attenuated by the supplements (P < 0.05). Endotoxemic mice exhibited higher muscle gene expression of components of the NF-κB pathway, with the phosphorylation of IκB kinase-α/β. These returned to basal levels (relative to the control group) in both GLN+ALA-LPS and DIP-LPS groups (P < 0.05). Higher mRNA of IRAK1 and MyD88 were observed in muscle of LPS group compared with the control and supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Oral supplementations with GLN+ALA or DIP are effective in attenuating oxidative stress and the proinflammatory responses induced by endotoxemia in mice.Nutrition 05/2014; 30(5):602-11. DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2013.10.019 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the burden of both malnutrition and tuberculosis (TB) in children worldwide, there are few studies on the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. From available research, it appears that malnutrition is a predictor of tuberculosis disease and is associated with worse outcomes. This is supported through several lines of evidence, including the role of vitamin D receptor genotypes, malnutrition's effects on immune development, respiratory infections among malnourished children, and limited work specifically on paediatric tuberculosis and malnutrition. Nutritional supplementation has yet to suggest significant benefits on the course of TB in children. There is a critical need for research on childhood tuberculosis, specifically on how nutritional status affects the risk and progression of tuberculosis and whether nutritional supplementation improves clinical outcomes or prevents disease.The Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2012; 206(12). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jis608 · 5.85 Impact Factor