Dietary glutamine supplementation increases the activity of peritoneal macrophages and hemopoiesis in early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin.
ABSTRACT Infants who are breast-fed have been shown to have a lower incidence of certain infectious diseases compared with formula-fed infants. Glutamine is one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk and it is essential for the function of immune system cells such as macrophages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine supplementation on the function of peritoneal macrophages and on hemopoiesis in early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Mice were weaned at 14 d of age and distributed to 2 groups and fed either a glutamine-free diet (n = 16) or a glutamine-supplemented diet (+Gln) (n = 16). Both diets were isonitrogenous (with addition of a mixture of nonessential amino acids) and isocaloric. At d 21, 2 subgroups of mice (n = 16) were intraperitoneally injected with BCG and all mice were killed at d 28. Plasma, muscle and liver glutamine concentrations and muscle glutamine synthetase activity were not affected by diet or inoculation with BCG. The +Gln diet led to increased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood (P < 0.05) and granulocyte and lymphocyte counts in the bone marrow and spleen (P < 0.05). The +Gln diet increased spreading and adhesion capacities, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) syntheses and the phagocytic and fungicidal activity of peritoneal macrophages (P < 0.05). The interaction between the +Gln diet and BCG inoculation increased the area under the curve of interleukin (IL)-1beta and TNFalpha syntheses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the intake of glutamine increases the function of peritoneal macrophages and hemopoiesis in early-weaned and BCG-inoculated mice. These data have important implications for the design of breast milk substitutes for human infants.
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ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the effect of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom on rat macrophage metabolism and function. Two hours after subcutaneous injection of the venom, peritoneal resident (unstimulated), elicited (thioglycollate-stimulated), and activated Mycobacterium bovis strain bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) macrophages were collected, and their functional and metabolic parameters were analyzed. The venom inhibited spreading and phagocytosis of macrophages. On the other hand, this treatment increased H(2)O(2) and NO production, candidacidal activity, and the activities of key enzymes of glycolysis and glutaminolysis. We also investigated whether the venom could affect macrophage activation by thioglycollate or BCG. The administration of venom 2 h before injection of thioglycollate and BCG or 2 or 3 days after injection of the thioglycollate or BCG, respectively, did not modify the previous observations. These findings suggest that crotalic venom leads the macrophage to an activated state, with high production of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species. This cell activation state does not include inflammatory properties of spreading and phagocytosis.Journal of Leukocyte Biology 11/2001; 70(4):551-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
- Cell Biochemistry and Function 04/1996; 14(1):1-10. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several studies indicate that glutamine is a critical requirement for growth of cultured cells. The present studies describe the effect of deprivation of glucose or glutamine on mouse bone marrow cell or HL-60 cell colony formation in soft agar. The mouse bone marrow cells were induced to undergo granulocyte/macrophage type differentiation by colony-stimulating factor. Glutamine, but not glucose, was found to be an indispensable metabolite for the cloning of HL-60 cells or differentiated mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, the effect of glucose or glutamine on the rate of differentiation of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-induced HL-60 cells in liquid culture was studied. Glutamine was found to be superior to glucose in its ability to support the proliferation and myeloid differentiation of HL-60 cells. When an optimal concentration of DMSO was used, the rate of differentiation of induced HL-60 cells was found to be a function of the concentration of glutamine. In addition to these studies glutamine utilization and product formation was studied in induced and uninduced HL-60 cells after 60 min incubation with 1 mM initial glutamine concentration. The fractional distribution of the glutamine carbon into its metabolic products remained unchanged in induced versus uninduced HL-60 cells. However, the rate of utilization of glutamine and product formation by terminally differentiated HL-60 cells was less than the rate of utilization of glutamine by undifferentiated HL-60 cells. The data do not explain the role of glutamine in the complex process of differentiation but establish the critical requirements for glutamine, but not glucose, in myelopoiesis.In Vitro 12/1984; 20(11):869-75.