Infants who are breast-fed have been shown to have a lower incidence of certain infectious diseases compared with formula-fed infants. Glutamine is one of the most abundant amino acids found in maternal milk and it is essential for the function of immune system cells such as macrophages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glutamine supplementation on the function of peritoneal macrophages and on hemopoiesis in early-weaned mice inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Mice were weaned at 14 d of age and distributed to 2 groups and fed either a glutamine-free diet (n = 16) or a glutamine-supplemented diet (+Gln) (n = 16). Both diets were isonitrogenous (with addition of a mixture of nonessential amino acids) and isocaloric. At d 21, 2 subgroups of mice (n = 16) were intraperitoneally injected with BCG and all mice were killed at d 28. Plasma, muscle and liver glutamine concentrations and muscle glutamine synthetase activity were not affected by diet or inoculation with BCG. The +Gln diet led to increased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts in the peripheral blood (P < 0.05) and granulocyte and lymphocyte counts in the bone marrow and spleen (P < 0.05). The +Gln diet increased spreading and adhesion capacities, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) syntheses and the phagocytic and fungicidal activity of peritoneal macrophages (P < 0.05). The interaction between the +Gln diet and BCG inoculation increased the area under the curve of interleukin (IL)-1beta and TNFalpha syntheses (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the intake of glutamine increases the function of peritoneal macrophages and hemopoiesis in early-weaned and BCG-inoculated mice. These data have important implications for the design of breast milk substitutes for human infants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract To investigate the effect of Yerba Mate (YM) aqueous extract intake on the NF-kB pathway and AKT expression in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of rats submitted to a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Wistar rats were fed a control (CON) (n = 24) or a HFD (n = 24) for 12 weeks. Afterwards, rats received YM daily (1 g/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Intake of YM aqueous extract reduced body weight gain (p < 0.05) and total blood cholesterol (p < 0.05) in the HFD group in comparison to the non-treated HFD group. HFD group demonstrated an increased glycemic response at 5 and 10 min after insulin injection. YM decreased the ratio between phosphorylated and total kinase inhibitor of κB (IKK), increased the ratio of phosphorylated to total form of protein kinase B (AKT) and reduced NF-κB phosphorylation in the liver of the HFD group. Our data suggest a beneficial role of YM in improving metabolic dysfunctions induced by HFD.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 08/2014; 65(8):1-10. DOI:10.3109/09637486.2014.945153 · 1.21 Impact Factor
"Based on the results presented here and in other studies   , we suggest that the presence of L-alanine in the DIP form or in its free form can spare glutamine metabolism, allowing the latter to be used by high-demand tissues  under endotoxemia. In vivo studies support this mechanistic effect because both DIP and L-glutamine in its free form  , in conjunction with other amino acids  , can enhance whole-body glutamine status in health and catabolic situations. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with l-glutamine plus l-alanine (GLN+ALA), both in the free form and l-alanyl-l-glutamine dipeptide (DIP) in endotoxemic mice.
B6.129 F2/J mice were subjected to endotoxemia (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide [LPS], 5 mg/kg, LPS group) and orally supplemented for 48 h with either l-glutamine (1 g/kg) plus l-alanine (0.61 g/kg) (GLN+ALA-LPS group) or 1.49 g/kg DIP (DIP-LPS group). Plasma glutamine, cytokines, and lymphocyte proliferation were measured. Liver and skeletal muscle glutamine, glutathione (GSH), oxidized GSH (GSSG), tissue lipoperoxidation (TBARS), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB-interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1)-Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 pathway also were determined.
Endotoxemia depleted plasma (by 71%), muscle (by 44%), and liver (by 49%) glutamine concentrations (relative to the control group), which were restored in both GLN+ALA-LPS and DIP-LPS groups (P < 0.05). Supplemented groups reestablished GSH content, intracellular redox status (GSSG/GSH ratio), and TBARS concentration in muscle and liver (P < 0.05). T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation increased in supplemented groups compared with controls and LPS group (P < 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 β, and IL-10 increased in LPS group but were attenuated by the supplements (P < 0.05). Endotoxemic mice exhibited higher muscle gene expression of components of the NF-κB pathway, with the phosphorylation of IκB kinase-α/β. These returned to basal levels (relative to the control group) in both GLN+ALA-LPS and DIP-LPS groups (P < 0.05). Higher mRNA of IRAK1 and MyD88 were observed in muscle of LPS group compared with the control and supplemented groups (P < 0.05).
Oral supplementations with GLN+ALA or DIP are effective in attenuating oxidative stress and the proinflammatory responses induced by endotoxemia in mice.
"However , the findings of the present study suggest that L-glutamine along with L-alanine solution have similar metabolic effects compared with DIP which seems that other mechanisms may be involved in the transport of dipeptides and amino acids, such paracellular movement and cell-penetrating peptides and amino acids (Gilbert et al., 2008). In vivo studies support this mechanistic effect, since both DIP and L-glutamine in its free form, in conjunction with other amino acids, can enhance whole body glutamine status in health and catabolic situations (Cruzat et al., 2010; Cruzat and Tirapegui, 2009; Harris et al., 2012; Rogero et al., 2008b). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that oral l-glutamine supplementations could attenuate muscle damage and oxidative stress, mediated by glutathione (GSH) in high-intensity aerobic exercise by increasing the 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1).
Adult male Wistar rats were 8-week trained (60-min/day, 5days/week) on a treadmill. During the last 21days, the animals were supplemented with either l-alanyl-l-glutamine dipeptide (1.5g/kg, DIP) or a solution containing the amino acids l-glutamine (1g/kg) and l-alanine (0.67g/kg) in their free form (GLN+ALA) or water (controls).
Plasma from both DIP- and GLN+ALA-treated animals showed higher l-glutamine concentrations and reduced ammonium, malondialdehyde, myoglobin and creatine kinase activity. In the soleus and gastrocnemius muscle of both supplemented groups, l-glutamine and GSH contents were increased and GSH disulfide (GSSG) to GSH ratio was attenuated (p<0.001). In the soleus muscle, cytosolic and nuclear HSP70 and HSF1 were increased by DIP supplementation. GLN+ALA group exhibited higher HSP70 (only in the nucleus) and HSF1 (cytosol and nucleus). In the gastrocnemius muscle, both supplementations were able to increase cytosolic HSP70 and cytosolic and nuclear HSF1.
In trained rats, oral supplementation with DIP or GLN+ALA solution increased the expression of muscle HSP70, favored muscle l-glutamine/GSH status and improved redox defenses, which attenuate markers of muscle damage, thus improving the beneficial effects of high-intensity exercise training.
Life sciences 11/2013; 94(2). DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2013.11.009 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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