High-dose but not low-dose mainstream cigarette smoke suppresses allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T cell function
ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies have identified childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke as a significant risk factor for the onset and exacerbation of asthma, but studies of smoking in adults are less conclusive, and mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) has been reported to both enhance and attenuate allergic airway inflammation in animal models. We sensitized mice to ovalbumin (OVA) and exposed them to MCS in a well-characterized exposure system. Exposure to MCS (600 mg/m(3) total suspended particulates, TSP) for 1 h/day suppresses the allergic airway response, with reductions in eosinophilia, tissue inflammation, goblet cell metaplasia, IL-4 and IL-5 in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and OVA-specific antibodies. Suppression is associated with a loss of antigen-specific proliferation and cytokine production by T cells. However, exposure to a lower dose of MCS (77 mg/m(3) TSP) had no effect on the number of BAL eosinophils or OVA-specific antibodies. This is the first report to demonstrate, using identical smoking methodologies, that MCS inhibits immune responses in a dose-dependent manner and may explain the observation that, although smoking provokes a systemic inflammatory response, it also inhibits T cell-mediated responses involved in a number of diseases.
- SourceAvailable from: Takeshi NabeAdvanced Topics in Environmental Health and Air Pollution Case Studies, 08/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-525-9
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ABSTRACT: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a common health concern despite legislation to limit its presence, especially in public environments. ETS exposure is associated with changes in lung development and morphology, airway hyperresponsiveness and obstruction and development of asthma and its increased severity. However these effects of ETS exposure are not universally supported. Clinical data as well as studies in laboratory animals report ETS exposure may even attenuate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Therefore, we lack complete understanding of ETS effects on pulmonary function as well as its mechanism of action. Disparate clinical and laboratory reports likely result from variables of ETS exposure, degrees of atopy and mechanisms of sensitization. The present review addresses the effects of ETS on AHR reported in humans and animal models. ETS role as an adjuvant to AHR as well as it contribution to development of antigenic tolerance is also reviewed. Possible neurogenic, cellular and intracellular mechanisms of ETS-induced ARH are proposed based on the existing literature. Enhanced understanding of the effects and mechanism of ETS will enhance therapy strategies in treatment of ARH and related disease such as COPD as well as enhancing public presentation of convincing evidence to avoid ETS.12/2009; 8(5):340-7. DOI:10.2174/1871528110908050340
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ABSTRACT: Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.Tobacco Induced Diseases 01/2009; 4(1):12. DOI:10.1186/1617-9625-4-12