Predictors of blood pressure response to intensified and fixed combination treatment of hypertension: the ACCOMPLISH study.
ABSTRACT Avoiding Cardiovascular events through COMbination therapy in Patients LIving with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) is an outcome study investigating aggressive antihypertensive combination treatment. It has achieved a larger fraction of overall patients with blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mmHg (73.3%) and diabetic patients <130/80 mmHg (43.3%) at 12 months of follow-up than any other large outcomes trial. We have analyzed baseline predictors of BPs and BP control at 12 months.
Blinded baseline and 12-month BP was available in 10,173 patients of whom 6132 had diabetes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for BP control at 12 months; simple and multiple regression models were used for absolute BP value at 12 months. A stepwise procedure was used to select significant predictors in multivariate analyses.
Mean (SD) BP fell from 145.5/80.2 mmHg (18.2/10.7 mmHg) at randomization to 132.7/74.7 mmHg (16/9.6 mmHg) at 12 months. The main baseline predictors of achieving BP control were region (USA), Caucasian race and taking lipid-lowering drugs. The predictors of uncontrolled BP were higher baseline systolic BP values, more previous antihypertensive medications, proteinuria and previous thiazide use.
Patients in the USA, Caucasians and patients taking lipid-lowering therapy were most likely to reach BP targets with combination therapy. Strong predictors of uncontrolled hypertension were more severe hypertension, an established need for more antihypertensive drugs and target organ damage.
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ABSTRACT: Recent findings from randomized clinical trials indicate an improved patient adherence and blood pressure (BP) control by using fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) in the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to verify those data in a large real-world sample of hypertensive patients and to cross-check adherence evaluation performed by physicians and patients self-assessment. A European multi-center, prospective, 24-week, non-interventional study was conducted including 14,979 patients with essential hypertension and new treatment with olmesartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide as an FDC. Patients' adherence was measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and a non-standardized questionnaire was used by physicians and patients for self-assessment. The mean age of the patients was 63.9 ± 11.78 years and 46.5 % were women. One or more cardiovascular risk factors were present in 71.9 % of patients and 94.7 % had been treated for hypertension before study entry. Mean adherence to medication by MMAS-8 improved from 6.0 to 6.9 at study end. Corresponding improvements of adherence were seen on physicians' and patients' self-assessments throughout the study. Mean decrease of systolic/diastolic BP was 26.4/12.8 mmHg without a relevant difference between the MMAS-8 adherence levels. BP target achievement improved from 55.3 to 67.7 % in patients with low versus high adherence. The overall rate of patients with adverse drug reactions was very low (1.76 %) but more frequent in patients with low adherence. Our data confirm previous clinical trial data on the improvement of medication adherence by switching antihypertensive combination therapy to an FDC and a subsequent improvement in BP target achievement. An observed trend toward a reduction in adverse drug reactions needs to be further investigated in clinical trials.Clinical Drug Investigation 04/2014; · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypertensive patients with clinical blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥3 antihypertensive medications (ie, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension [aTRH]) comprise ≈28% to 30% of all uncontrolled patients in the United States. However, the proportion receiving these medications in optimal doses is unknown; aTRH is used because treatment adherence and measurement artifacts were not available in electronic record data from our >200 community-based clinics Outpatient Quality Improvement Network. This study sought to define the proportion of uncontrolled hypertensives with aTRH on optimal regimens and clinical factors associated with optimal therapy. During 2007-2010, 468 877 hypertensive patients met inclusion criteria. BP <140/<90 mm Hg defined control. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess variables independently associated with optimal therapy (prescription of diuretic and ≥2 other BP medications at ≥50% of maximum recommended hypertension doses). Among 468 877 hypertensives, 147 635 (31.5%) were uncontrolled; among uncontrolled hypertensives, 44 684 were prescribed ≥3 BP medications (30.3%), of whom 22 189 (15.0%) were prescribed optimal therapy. Clinical factors independently associated with optimal BP therapy included black race (odds ratio, 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.49]), chronic kidney disease (1.31 [1.25-1.38]), diabetes mellitus (1.30 [1.24-1.37]), and coronary heart disease risk equivalent status (1.29 [1.14-1.46]). Clinicians more often prescribe optimal therapy for aTRH when cardiovascular risk is greater and treatment goals lower. Approximately 1 in 7 of all uncontrolled hypertensives and 1 in 2 with uncontrolled aTRH are prescribed ≥3 BP medications in optimal regimens. Prescribing more optimal pharmacotherapy for uncontrolled hypertensives including aTRH, confirmed with out-of-office BP, could improve hypertension control.Hypertension 08/2013; · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A series of fluoride-modified SO42−/TiO2-SiO2 (4wt.% SO42−) catalysts have been prepared by an incipient wetness impregnation technique and compared for their catalytic activity/selectivity in esterification of acetic acid and cumene conversion reactions. The characterisation of the catalysts was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermal analysis (TG-DTA), nitrogen adsorption–desorption methods, surface acid strength by Hammett indicator method, surface hydroxyl groups and sulphate content by titrimetric method. TiO2-SiO2 mixed oxides are amorphous up to 1073K, whereas crystallisation starts with sulphation and fluorination at a lower temperature, 923K. Sulphate ion enhances the surface area, whereas fluoride ion decreases it. The specific surface area of a particular wt.% promoted fluoride ion (2wt.%) enhances with increase in calcination temperature up to 723K and thereafter decreases on further heating up to 923K. Surface hydroxyl groups measurement and IR result shows that both the internal weakly H-bonded hydroxyl groups and free hydroxyl groups are present on the surface of the mixed oxides. All types of OH groups are reduced in number by anion treatments (both SO42−, F−, SO42− with F−) as well as on calcination. However, all catalysts retain some hydroxyl groups even after anion treatment, which increases the strength of the remaining acid sites, as observed from Hammett indicator method as well as cumene conversion reaction. The simultaneous presence of SO42− and F− exerts a stronger effect than the presence of only one of these modifiers. The dispersed F− stabilises the SO42− ions that are co-adsorbed on TiO2-SiO2 mixed oxides and the increase of surface sulphate concentration as well as the strength of the acid sites accounts for the higher rate of esterification of acetic acid.Applied Catalysis A-general - APPL CATAL A-GEN. 01/2001; 211(2):175-187.