Predictors of blood pressure response to intensified and fixed combination treatment of hypertension: The ACCOMPLISH Study
ABSTRACT Avoiding Cardiovascular events through COMbination therapy in Patients LIving with Systolic Hypertension (ACCOMPLISH) is an outcome study investigating aggressive antihypertensive combination treatment. It has achieved a larger fraction of overall patients with blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mmHg (73.3%) and diabetic patients <130/80 mmHg (43.3%) at 12 months of follow-up than any other large outcomes trial. We have analyzed baseline predictors of BPs and BP control at 12 months.
Blinded baseline and 12-month BP was available in 10,173 patients of whom 6132 had diabetes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used for BP control at 12 months; simple and multiple regression models were used for absolute BP value at 12 months. A stepwise procedure was used to select significant predictors in multivariate analyses.
Mean (SD) BP fell from 145.5/80.2 mmHg (18.2/10.7 mmHg) at randomization to 132.7/74.7 mmHg (16/9.6 mmHg) at 12 months. The main baseline predictors of achieving BP control were region (USA), Caucasian race and taking lipid-lowering drugs. The predictors of uncontrolled BP were higher baseline systolic BP values, more previous antihypertensive medications, proteinuria and previous thiazide use.
Patients in the USA, Caucasians and patients taking lipid-lowering therapy were most likely to reach BP targets with combination therapy. Strong predictors of uncontrolled hypertension were more severe hypertension, an established need for more antihypertensive drugs and target organ damage.
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ABSTRACT: Recent findings from randomized clinical trials indicate an improved patient adherence and blood pressure (BP) control by using fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) in the treatment of hypertension. The aim of the present study was to verify those data in a large real-world sample of hypertensive patients and to cross-check adherence evaluation performed by physicians and patients self-assessment. A European multi-center, prospective, 24-week, non-interventional study was conducted including 14,979 patients with essential hypertension and new treatment with olmesartan, amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide as an FDC. Patients' adherence was measured using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and a non-standardized questionnaire was used by physicians and patients for self-assessment. The mean age of the patients was 63.9 ± 11.78 years and 46.5 % were women. One or more cardiovascular risk factors were present in 71.9 % of patients and 94.7 % had been treated for hypertension before study entry. Mean adherence to medication by MMAS-8 improved from 6.0 to 6.9 at study end. Corresponding improvements of adherence were seen on physicians' and patients' self-assessments throughout the study. Mean decrease of systolic/diastolic BP was 26.4/12.8 mmHg without a relevant difference between the MMAS-8 adherence levels. BP target achievement improved from 55.3 to 67.7 % in patients with low versus high adherence. The overall rate of patients with adverse drug reactions was very low (1.76 %) but more frequent in patients with low adherence. Our data confirm previous clinical trial data on the improvement of medication adherence by switching antihypertensive combination therapy to an FDC and a subsequent improvement in BP target achievement. An observed trend toward a reduction in adverse drug reactions needs to be further investigated in clinical trials.Clinical Drug Investigation 04/2014; 34(6). DOI:10.1007/s40261-014-0188-z · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypertensive patients with clinical blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥3 antihypertensive medications (ie, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension [aTRH]) comprise ≈28% to 30% of all uncontrolled patients in the United States. However, the proportion receiving these medications in optimal doses is unknown; aTRH is used because treatment adherence and measurement artifacts were not available in electronic record data from our >200 community-based clinics Outpatient Quality Improvement Network. This study sought to define the proportion of uncontrolled hypertensives with aTRH on optimal regimens and clinical factors associated with optimal therapy. During 2007-2010, 468 877 hypertensive patients met inclusion criteria. BP <140/<90 mm Hg defined control. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess variables independently associated with optimal therapy (prescription of diuretic and ≥2 other BP medications at ≥50% of maximum recommended hypertension doses). Among 468 877 hypertensives, 147 635 (31.5%) were uncontrolled; among uncontrolled hypertensives, 44 684 were prescribed ≥3 BP medications (30.3%), of whom 22 189 (15.0%) were prescribed optimal therapy. Clinical factors independently associated with optimal BP therapy included black race (odds ratio, 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.49]), chronic kidney disease (1.31 [1.25-1.38]), diabetes mellitus (1.30 [1.24-1.37]), and coronary heart disease risk equivalent status (1.29 [1.14-1.46]). Clinicians more often prescribe optimal therapy for aTRH when cardiovascular risk is greater and treatment goals lower. Approximately 1 in 7 of all uncontrolled hypertensives and 1 in 2 with uncontrolled aTRH are prescribed ≥3 BP medications in optimal regimens. Prescribing more optimal pharmacotherapy for uncontrolled hypertensives including aTRH, confirmed with out-of-office BP, could improve hypertension control.Hypertension 08/2013; 62(4). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.01448 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the cardiovascular mortality risk in association with blood pressure level among people with and without antihypertensive treatment, we performed the participant-level meta-analysis that included 39 705 Japanese from 6 cohorts (58.4% women; mean age, 60.1 years; 20.4% treated). Multivariable-adjusted Cox models were used to analyze the risk of cardiovascular mortality and its subtypes among 6 blood pressure levels according to recent guidelines, optimal to Grade 3 hypertension, and the usage of antihypertensive medication at baseline. During median 10.0 years of follow-up, there were 2032 cardiovascular deaths (5.1 per 1000 person-years), of which 410 deaths were coronary heart disease, 371 were heart failure, and 903 deaths were stroke. Treated participants had significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios, 1.50; 95% confidence intervals, 1.36-1.66), coronary heart disease (hazard ratios, 1.53; confidence intervals, 1.23-1.90), heart failure (hazard ratios, 1.39; confidence intervals, 1.09-1.76), and stroke (hazard ratios, 1.48; confidence intervals, 1.28-1.72) compared with untreated people. Among untreated participants, the risks increased linearly with an increment of blood pressure category (P≤0.011). The risk increments per blood pressure category were higher in young participants (<60 years; 22% to 79%) than those in old people (≥60 years; 7% to 15%) with significant interaction for total cardiovascular, heart failure, and stroke mortality (P≤0.026). Among treated participants, the significant linear association was also observed for cardiovascular mortality (P=0.0003), whereas no stepwise increase in stroke death was observed (P=0.19). The risks of cardiovascular mortality were ≈1.5-fold high in participants under antihypertensive medication. More attention should be paid to the residual cardiovascular risks in treated patients.Hypertension 03/2014; 63(6). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.03206 · 7.63 Impact Factor