Small Changes in Nutrition and Physical Activity Promote Weight Loss and Maintenance: 3-Month Evidence from the ASPIRE Randomized Trial

Department of Psychology, East Carolina University, 104 Rawl, East Fifth Street, Greenville, NC 27858-4353, USA.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.2). 07/2008; 35(3):351-7. DOI: 10.1007/s12160-008-9033-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Current obesity interventions use intensive behavior changes to achieve large initial weight loss. However, weight regain after treatment is common, and drop out rates are relatively high. Smaller behavioral changes could produce initial weight loss and be easier to sustain after active treatment.
We examined the efficacy of an intervention that targeted small but cumulative participant-chosen changes in diet and physical activity (ASPIRE) and compared this treatment to standard didactic and wait-list control groups. The primary outcome measures were body weight, waist circumference, and intra-abdominal fat.
Fifty-nine overweight or obese sedentary adults were randomized to one of three groups: (1) the ASPIRE group (n = 20), (2) a standard educationally-based treatment group (n = 20), or (3) a wait list control group (n = 19) for 4 months. Active treatment groups received identical resistance and aerobic training programs.
Intention-to-treat analyses showed that participants in the ASPIRE group lost significantly more weight than the standard and control groups (-4.4 vs. -1.1 and +0.1 kg, respectively), and the greater initial weight loss in the ASPIRE group was sustained 3 months after active treatment (4.1 kg). An alternative analytic strategy (0.3 kg/month weight gain for those lost to follow-up) showed continued weight loss (-0.2 kg after active treatment; -4.6 kg from baseline) at follow-up in the ASPIRE group. Similar patterns were observed for the other adiposity measures.
More modest behavioral changes are capable of promoting weight loss, decreasing adiposity markers and sustaining these changes over 3 months. Longer-term studies comparing this approach with traditional behavioral weight loss treatments are warranted.

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    • "However, when EB is no longer maintained then weight changes will occur. Studies suggest that small differences between EI and energy expenditure may be sufficient to cause weight changes [25] [26] [27]. This is because excess energy is not stored at 100% efficiency owing in part to the metabolic costs of storing various fuels, and energy is instead stored at about 50% efficiency, leading to small increases in weight over time due to positive EB [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Extreme weight changes, or changes in weight greater than 10 kg within a 2-year period, can be caused by numerous factors that are much different than typical weight fluctuations. This paper uses two interesting cases of extreme weight change (a female who experienced extreme weight gain and a male who experienced extreme weight loss) from participants in the Energy Balance Study to illustrate the physiological and psychosocial variables associated with the weight change over a 15-month period, including rigorous assessments of energy intake, physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure, and body composition. In addition, we provide a brief review of the literature regarding the relationship between energy balance (EB) and weight change, as well as insight into proper weight management strategies. The case studies presented here are then placed in the context of the literature regarding EB and weight change. This report further supports previous research on the importance of regular doses of PA for weight maintenance, and that even higher volumes of PA are necessary for weight loss. Practitioners should emphasize the importance of PA to their patients and take steps to monitor their patients' involvement in PA.
    Postgraduate Medicine 12/2014; 127(3):1-7. DOI:10.1080/00325481.2014.995067 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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    • "Patients received 20 treatment sessions over a period of 52 weeks. Briefly, SCM is theoretically- based program that promotes self-selected changes in behavior (Lutes et al. 2013; Lutes et al. 2008). SCM offered no prescribed changes or preset goals for weight maintenance behaviors and all changes in caloric intake and physical activity were self-selected by the patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement program (LMR) and enrolled in a 52-week Small Changes Maintenance intervention (SCM). Patients lost a median 18% of body weight during LMR and completed assessments about weight expectations and weight satisfaction pre- and post-SCM. Findings Of the 30 patients who started SCM, 8 (27%) were lost to attrition. Odds of SCM attrition were higher in patients who lost ≤ 18.2% of pre-LMR weight (OR: 12.25, P = 0.035), had lower satisfaction (≤7) pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040), and who expected further weight loss of 9.1 kg or more pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040). SCM completers significantly increased weight loss expectations by a median of 2.3 kg from pre-SCM to post-SCM (WSR P = 0.049) that paralleled weight regained post-SCM (2.7 kg). Conclusions After completion of a medically-supervised commercial weight loss program, patients with the greatest expectations for further weight loss and the lowest weight satisfaction were more likely to drop out of SCM. Failure to participate in maintenance treatment may lead to regain of greater than half of lost weight over the next year. Among SCM completers, lower expectations for further weight loss and greater weight satisfaction appeared to be associated with continued engagement in maintenance treatment.
    SpringerPlus 08/2014; 3(1):477. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-477
    • "The current study is a prospective randomized trial with an intervention that is based on the small changes model of behavior change [11] [12] [13] [14]. Small changes goals are unique because they are: 1) relative to baseline behaviors (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: African American (AA) women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the rural south experience less weight loss and poorer glycemic control in traditional diabetes management programs compared to Caucasians. This paper describes the design, rationale, and baseline characteristics from an innovative community health worker (CHW) delivered intervention program in this population. This prospective trial randomized rural AA women with uncontrolled T2DM (HbA1c ≥ 7.0) to receive a behaviorally-centered, culturally-tailored lifestyle intervention during 16 contacts from a trained AA CHW or 16 approved diabetes educational mailings. Changes from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), weight, body mass index (BMI), self-reported dietary and physical activity patterns, and psychosocial measures including diabetes distress, empowerment, depression, self-care, medication adherence, and life satisfaction will be assessed at 6- and 12-months. Two hundred AA women (mean age = 53.09 ± 10.89 yr) with T2DM from impoverished rural communities were enrolled. Baseline data demonstrated profoundly uncontrolled diabetes of long term duration (mean HbA1c = 9.11 ± 1.82; mean BMI = 37.68 ± 8.20; mean BP = 134.51 ± 20.39/84.19 ± 11.68; 10.5 ± 0.7 years). Self-care behavior assessment revealed poor dietary and medication adherence and sedentary lifestyle. Most psychosocial measures ranged within normal limits. The present sample of AA women from impoverished rural communities exhibited significantly uncontrolled T2DM of long duration with associated obesity and poor lifestyle behaviors. An innovative CHW led lifestyle intervention may lead to more effective strategies for T2DM management in this population.
    Contemporary clinical trials 06/2013; 36(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2013.06.006 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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