Little cigars, big cigars: Omissions and commissions of harm and harm reduction information on the Internet
ABSTRACT We conducted a comparative analysis of "harm," "harm reduction," and "little cigar" information about cigars on 10 major English-language health Web sites. The sites were from governmental and nongovernmental organizations based in seven different countries and included "harm" and "harm reduction" information, discussions of little cigars, quantitative estimates of health risks, and qualifying behavioral characteristics (inhalation, number per day). Of the 10 Web sites, 7 offered statements explicitly indicating that cigars may be safer than cigarettes. None of the Web sites reviewed described that little cigars are likely as dangerous as cigarettes. Some Web sites provided quantitative estimates of health risks and extensive discussions of qualifying factors. Reading grade levels were higher than desirable. Extensive and complex information on the reduced risks of cigars compared with cigarettes is available on Web sites affiliated with prominent health organizations. Yet these sites fail to warn consumers that popular cigarette-like little cigars and cigarillos are likely to be just as dangerous as cigarettes, even for those who have never smoked cigarettes. Improvement of these Web sites is urgently needed to provide the public with high-quality health information.
- Tobacco control 05/2008; 17(2):74-5. DOI:10.1136/tc.2008.025155 · 5.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A mathematical model is proposed for the description of protein purification through membrane affinity chromatography. The model describes all the three stages of the chromatographic cycle and takes into account convection, axial dispersion and binding reaction kinetics in the porous membrane matrix, while boundary layer mass transfer resistance is shown to be negligible. All the model parameters have a precise physical meaning which enables their evaluation through separate experimental measurements, independent of the chromatographic cycle. Model testing and validation has been performed with experimental chromatographic cycles carried out with pure IgG solutions as well as with complex mixtures containing IgG(1), using new affinity membranes. The comparison between model calculations and experimental data showed good agreement for all stages of the affinity cycle. In particular, for loading and washing steps binding kinetics was found so fast that adsorption equilibrium was sufficient to describe the observed behavior; as a result, the model simulations are entirely predictive for the adsorption and washing phases. On the contrary, in the elution step the reaction rate is comparable to that of the other simultaneous transport phenomena. The model is able to predict the performance of chromatographic purification of IgG from complex mixtures simply on the basis of the parameter values obtained from pure IgG solutions.Journal of Chromatography A 11/2010; 1218(13):1677-90. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.11.056 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Internet is a major source of health information and several notable health web sites contain information on the risks associated with cigar smoking. Previous research indicates that Internet pages containing health information on cigars have high reading levels and are restricted to text material, which can decrease understanding. We examined the effects of existing text-only (from the United States National Cancer Institute website) versus novel graphic-enhanced information on smokers' perceptions of health risks associated with cigar smoking. The study was a laboratory-based single session of current cigarette smokers (n=102) who viewed cigar smoking risk information on a computer monitor then completed cigar risk questionnaire items. Participants were randomized to view either text-only or graphic-enhanced cigar information. The graphic version contained additional risk information about cigarillos and little cigars. Text-only participants were more likely to underestimate perceived health risks associated with cigar smoking compared to graphic-enhanced participants (47.1% versus 17.7%, p=.001); and, graphic-enhanced participants were more likely to report that they would share the cigar health risk information with friends compared to those viewing text-only, 47.0% versus 27.4%, p=.005. Employing graphics to convey health risks associated with cigar smoking increases understanding and likeliness to share information. Integrating information about little cigar and cigarillo risk in conjunction with large cigar risk information is an effective public health strategy to provide more comprehensive risk information. Utilizing graphics on health information internet pages can increase knowledge and perceived risks of cigar smoking.Addictive behaviors 08/2011; 36(8):865-9. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.03.005 · 2.44 Impact Factor