The need for formative research in designing mass media health-education messages is widely accepted; however, distinct methodologies for developing such messages are less well documented. This article describes a culture-centered approach for developing messages to promote sexual risk reduction in urban African American adolescents. The method uses qualitative formative research to identify "competing narratives" that support healthy behavior despite the dominance of messages that favor risk-taking behavior. The method is illustrated using qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with 124 adolescents. Analysis focuses on two barriers to sexual risk reduction: (a) social pressure for early initiation of sexual intercourse and (b) perceptions that condoms reduce sexual pleasure. We demonstrate how competing narratives identified in the analysis can be featured in radio and television messages advocating healthy behavior by modeling risk-reducing negotiation skills.
"Formative research for systematic message development and design generally falls into two categories: (a) preproduction , where information about the health behavior, audience characteristics, potential messages and potential channels for the campaign are examined; and (b) production, where potential messages and channels are pre-tested with target audience members to assess their responses (Noar et al., 2009; Shafer, Cates, Diehl, & Hartmann, 2011). Formative research processes for developing HIV prevention messages have been previously reported (Andrasik et al., 2012; Horner et al., 2008; Uhrig, Eroglu, Bann, Wasserman, & Guenther-Grey, 2010; Wright, Fortune, Juzang, & Bull, 2011). Most recently, Andrasik and colleagues outlined the development of a media campaign that directly targeted participation in sexual networks (Andrasik et al., 2012) and included extensive discussion of preproduction research. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the United States, heterosexual transmission of HIV infection is dramatically higher among Blacks than among Whites. Overlapping (concurrent) sexual partnerships promote HIV transmission. The authors describe their process for developing a radio campaign (Escape the Web) to raise awareness among 18-34-year-old Black adults of the effect of concurrency on HIV transmission in the rural South. Radio is a powerful channel for the delivery of narrative-style health messages. Through six focus groups (n = 51) and 42 intercept interviews, the authors explored attitudes toward concurrency and solicited feedback on sample messages. Men were advised to (a) end concurrent partnerships and not to begin new ones; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. The narrative portrayed risky behaviors that trigger initiation of casual partnerships. Women were advised to (a) end partnerships in which they are not their partner's only partner; (b) use condoms consistently with all partners; and (c) tell others about the risks of concurrency and benefits of ending concurrent partnerships. Messages for all advised better modeling for children.
Journal of Health Communication 07/2015; DOI:10.1080/10810730.2015.1018643 · 1.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new position sensitive array type electron multiplier using micromachining technique has been investigated. Here are described new miniature three dimensional structures for such a multichannel electron multiplier. Their preliminary processing and performance analyses are presented.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A Accelerators Spectrometers Detectors and Associated Equipment 12/1994; 353(1):172-175. DOI:10.1016/0168-9002(94)91631-4 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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