Using culture-centered qualitative formative research to design broadcast messages for HIV prevention for African American adolescents.
ABSTRACT The need for formative research in designing mass media health-education messages is widely accepted; however, distinct methodologies for developing such messages are less well documented. This article describes a culture-centered approach for developing messages to promote sexual risk reduction in urban African American adolescents. The method uses qualitative formative research to identify "competing narratives" that support healthy behavior despite the dominance of messages that favor risk-taking behavior. The method is illustrated using qualitative analysis of semistructured interviews with 124 adolescents. Analysis focuses on two barriers to sexual risk reduction: (a) social pressure for early initiation of sexual intercourse and (b) perceptions that condoms reduce sexual pleasure. We demonstrate how competing narratives identified in the analysis can be featured in radio and television messages advocating healthy behavior by modeling risk-reducing negotiation skills.
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ABSTRACT: The provision of HIV treatment and care services to HIV positive adolescents is a relatively neglected issue in the South African response to the HIV epidemic. However, there are a growing number of adolescents requiring HIV treatment. This group consists primarily of perinatally HIV-infected individuals who are transferring out of paediatric HIV services. There are also a number of perinatally infected individuals who are presenting with AIDS defining illnesses for the first time at ages between 10 and 14. The number of horizontally infected adolescents requiring HIV treatment remains low, but may increase as the epidemic progresses. There is a need for adolescent specific HIV services due to the unique developmental characteristics of this period of life. Adolescence is marked by biological, cognitive, and psychological changes as individuals make the transition into adulthood. In order to provide effective HIV care to HIV-positive adolescents, it is necessary for service providers to have an understanding of how these changes may affect adolescents’ ability to maintain their health. Specific areas of concern that need to be addressed by HIV treatment and care providers for adolescents include: adherence, social context and family relationships, mental health, substance use, gender and sexual relationships, secondary prevention, and the transition into adult HIV care. Adult HIV-services may be unable to deal with these issues in a manner that supports the developmental needs, and unique challenges of adolescence. This in turn may lead to a decline in the health outcomes for HIV-positive adolescents. In this report we discuss a range of issues affecting the care of HIV-positive adolescents, based on local and international literature and interviews with staff of three HIV services for adolescents in the Western Cape, South Africa. We note the need for adolescent specific HIV-care in South Africa and highlight a range of issues that are central to the effective implementation of these services.
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ABSTRACT: Narratives have become an increasingly common health communication tool in recent years. Vivid, engaging writing can help audiences identify with storytellers and understand health messages, but few public health practitioners are trained to create such stories. A transdisciplinary perspective, informed by both creative writing advice and evidence-based public health practices, can help public health professionals use stories more effectively in their work. This article provides techniques for creating written narratives that communicate health information for chronic disease prevention. We guide public health professionals through the process of soliciting, writing, and revising such stories, and we discuss challenges and potential solutions.Preventing chronic disease 06/2014; 11:E94. DOI:10.5888/pcd11.130402 · 1.96 Impact Factor