Comparative Studies on the Immunomodulatory and Antitumor Activities of the Different Parts of Fruiting Body of Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma Spores

Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China.
Phytotherapy Research (Impact Factor: 2.66). 10/2008; 22(10):1282-91. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2478
Source: PubMed


Ganoderma lucidum (GL, Lingzhi) has been suggested as a candidate for immunomodulation and cancer treatment. The present study aimed at comparing the different parts of the fruiting body (whole fruiting body, pileus and stipe) of GL as well as Ganoderma spores (sporoderm-broken and -unbroken), with regard to their antitumor and immunomodulatory activities in S-180 sarcoma-bearing mice. The hot water extracts of different parts of GL or the Ganoderma spores were orally administered to the sarcoma-bearing mice. The results showed that GL whole fruiting body, stipe and sporoderm-broken spore possessed stronger inhibitory activities on sarcoma growth when compared with the pileus extract. Higher immunomodulatory activities in terms of enhancing the proliferative responses and the cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-6) production of spleen lymphocytes were also found in GL stipe and sporoderm-broken spore treatment groups. The sporoderm-broken spores had higher stimulatory effects on mitogen-activated spleen lymphocytes of healthy mice than those of sarcoma-bearing mice. In addition, the immunostimulatory activities of GL hot water extracts and Ganoderma spores were shown to be comparable; hence the latter did not show superiority in efficacy. This is the first comparative study on the immunomodulatory activities of Ganoderma spores and the fruiting body extracts.

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    • "Lanostane-type triterpenes, such as ganoderic alcohols (lucidumol A and ganoderiol F), are directly cytotoxic to tumor cells [3] [8] [9]. Recently, Yue et al. reported anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities of hot water extract from different parts of the G. lucidum fruiting body in tumor-bearing mice [10]. However, it is still unknown what components are responsible for the anti-tumor activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that ethanolic extracts of spores of Ganoderma lucidum inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells. The active constituents appeared to be long-chain fatty acids, particularly carbon-19 (C-19) fatty acids which have not been reported in spores of Ganoderma lucidum. In the present study, two of these C-19 fatty acids which are key compounds in the activities, were identified as their 2-naphthyl ester derivatives after esterification of a mixture of fatty acids obtained from the spores. The active compounds were determines as nonadecanoic acid and cis-9-nonadecenoic acid. The location of the double bond of cis-9-nonadecenoic acid was demonstrated by GC-MS analysis, based on the fragmentation pattern of the adduct prepared from the fatty acid and dimethyl disulfide.
    Fitoterapia 12/2011; 83(3):490-9. DOI:10.1016/j.fitote.2011.12.014 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi) is a medicinal mushroom that possesses immunomodulatory and antitumor effects. In Thailand, G. lucidum products are widely used as health-promoting agents but most of the products are imported. The aim of this study was to determine the immunomodulatory effects of various strains of G. lucidum grown in Thailand or imported. Flow cytometric measurement of early activation molecule CD69 expression on T lymphocytes showed that the water extract and water-insoluble fraction of unbroken spores of G. lucidum strain G9 (imported from China) at 100 μg/ml concentration gave the highest T lymphocytes proliferative responses, while the Thai-grown strain G2 could induce only 50 percent responses when compared with G9. The results from this preliminary study can be used in decision-making for G.lucidum strain selection and development in Thailand.
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    ABSTRACT: Ganoderma lucidum, commonly known as reishi or lingzhi mushroom, is regarded as a precious high value medicinal herb. It can stimulate the immune system in cancer patients. It is used to relieve pain, protect against nerve degeneration, reduce blood sugar and cholesterol, and it shows anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activites. The active substances are polysaccharides and triterpenes which are found in the spores. Broken spores contain more active compounds and are more active than unbroken spores because of their thick two-layer walls. The result of this study showed that alcohol and dichloromethane did not extract the triterpenes from unbroken spores. Moreover, boiling unbroken spores in water can extract some polysaccharides but their quantity is less than that of broken spores. Furthermore, the acid or alkaline condition which simulates gastric or intestinal conditions, respectively, is not able to break the spore wall as proven by electron microscopic examination, TLC chromatograms, or active substances analysis. Therefore, broken spores should be used as a medicinal product for oral administration in order to achieve higher amounts of the active principles,better gastrointestinal absorption and hence better therapeutic value.
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