Monitoring direct FXa-inhibitors and fondaparinux by Prothrombinase-induced Clotting Time (PiCT): relation to FXa-activity and influence of assay modifications.
ABSTRACT FXa-activity can be measured by the Prothrombinase induced Clotting time (PiCT). The manufactured assay uses bovine FXa as component and employs a incubation period before re-calcification. Its use with new direct FXa-inhibitors is challenged by reports on decreased sensitivity.
Blood was incubated with 3 investigational, structurally related (oxazolidinones) direct FXa-inhibitors including the recently approved agent rivaroxaban (0 - 2.0 microM), with the structurally distinct direct FXa-inhibitor DX 9065a (0 - 18 microM) and with the indirect inhibitor fondaparinux (0 - 0.6 microM). We tested modifications of PiCT regarding the source of FXa (bovine or human) and the incubation step (incubation before re-calcification=2-step, no incubation =1-step), and compared results with inhibition of human or bovine FXa-activity.
The bovine 2-step PiCT showed a paradoxical decrease with all direct FXa-inhibitors, this effect is surmounted only at high concentrations and is not seen with the bovine 1-step PiCT. The decrease in PiCT is not observed in antithrombin-depleted plasma. The humanized PiCT (1 or 2 step) showed a consistent prolongation under all direct inhibitors. Fondaparinux prolonged PiCT with either assay. The correlation between PiCT and corresponding FXa-activity was significant both for humanized 2-step PiCT or bovine 1 step PiCT (r2=0.80), but the 95% prediction interval was large and covered a span of 40% FXa-activity between one agent and another.
The customary bovine PiCT should only be used to monitor direct FXa-inhibitors when modified as 1-step procedure. PiCT is not suitable to assess similarity of FXa-inhibition when different agents are interchanged.
- SourceAvailable from: Elaine Gray
British Journal of Haematology 06/2014; 166(6). DOI:10.1111/bjh.12975 · 4.96 Impact Factor
- "Similarly, the APTT is not a suitable method as it is largely insensitive to these two anticoagulants. The PiCT has been evaluated by a number of groups for measurement of LMWH and fondaparinux activity (Calatzis et al, 2008; Harder et al, 2008). Although PiCT is sufficiently sensitive to LMWH, it can be influenced by other inhibitors and is therefore not specific for LMWH. "
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rivaroxaban (Xarelto®), a direct factor Xa inhibitor, is approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in Canada or those with nonvalvular AF (NVAF) in the EU, US and Japan. It is administered at a fixed oral dose and generally does not require routine monitoring of coagulation parameters. In the ROCKET AF trial in patients with NVAF and a moderate to high risk of stroke, oral rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily (15 mg once daily in patients with moderate renal impairment) was noninferior to oral dose-adjusted warfarin once daily in preventing primary endpoint events (i.e. stroke and systemic embolism) in the per-protocol population (primary noninferiority analysis) and superior in the on-treatment safety population (primary superiority analysis). Several ROCKET AF subgroup analyses indicated that the treatment effect of rivaroxaban was consistent across patient subgroups stratified according to baseline factors, including the presence or absence of previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Patients with moderate renal impairment receiving the reduced rivaroxaban dosage (15 mg once daily) showed a treatment effect consistent with that seen with rivaroxaban 20 mg once daily in patients with normal renal function. The tolerability profile of rivaroxaban was generally acceptable in ROCKET AF, with no significant difference between rivaroxaban and warfarin in the incidence of major or nonmajor clinically-relevant bleeding events (primary safety endpoint). In the Japanese ROCKET AF trial, rivaroxaban 15 mg once daily (10 mg once daily in patients with moderate renal impairment) was noninferior to oral dose-adjusted warfarin once daily in the incidence of major or nonmajor clinically-relevant bleeding (primary study outcome). Thus, rivaroxaban is a reasonable alternative to warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with NVAF.Drugs 05/2013; 73(7). DOI:10.1007/s40265-013-0056-9 · 4.13 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) differ considerably in their influence on clotting tests and release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). Biosimilarity therefore becomes an issue when generic forms of LMWHs are developed. So far, no bioequivalence study with a generic LMWH has been reported. A generic enoxaparin (test) was compared with the originator (reference) in 20 volunteers after single-dose subcutaneous administration (40 mg enoxaparin sodium, 4000 IU/mL anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa; activity). Target variables were anti-FXa and anti-FIIa activity, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT), and TFPI over 24 hours. The statistical evaluation of the anti-FXa activity profile demonstrated bioequivalence of test and reference with confidence intervals of area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-tlast) (93%-99%) and Amax (88%-95%). Confidence intervals of AUC(0-tlast) (89%-102%) and Amax (90%-103%) of anti-FIIa activity also fulfill bioequivalence criteria. The 90% confidence interval for the maximum concentration of TFPI ranged from 90% to 113%. The claim of similarity was also supported by aPTT and PiCT profiles. Bioequivalence with the originator enoxaparin could be demonstrated by ex vivo inhibition of FXa and FIIa activity, by coagulation tests (aPTT and PiCT), and by in vivo release of TFPI. Whether such data also prove biosimilarity of the generic enoxaparin needs to be determined.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 09/2008; 48(10):1189-96. DOI:10.1177/0091270008322911 · 2.47 Impact Factor