Wnt-11 signaling leads to down-regulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin, JNK/AP-1 and NF-kappaB pathways and promotes viability in the CHO-K1 cells.
ABSTRACT The Wnt family of glycoprotein growth factors controls a number of central cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and ageing. All the Wnt proteins analyzed so far either activate or inhibit the canonical beta-catenin signaling pathway that regulates transcription of the target genes. In addition, some of them activate noncanonical signaling pathways that involve components such as the JNK, heterotrimeric G proteins, protein kinase C, and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, although the precise signaling mechanisms are only just beginning to be revealed. We demonstrate here that Wnt-11 signaling is sufficient to inhibit not only the canonical beta-catenin mediated Wnt signaling but also JNK/AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling in the CHO cells, thus serving as a noncanonical Wnt ligand in this system. Inhibition of the JNK/AP-1 pathway is mediated in part by the MAPK kinase MKK4 and Akt. Moreover, protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of JNK/AP-1 by Wnt-11, but not of the NF-kappaB pathway. Consistent with the central role of Akt, JNK and NF-kappaB in cell survival and stress responses, Wnt-11 signaling promotes cell viability. Hence Wnt-11 is involved in coordination of key signaling pathways.
Article: Inhibition of fibroblast growth by Notch1 signaling is mediated by induction of Wnt11-dependent WISP-1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts are an integral component of stroma and important source of growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM). They play a prominent role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and in wound healing and tumor growth. Notch signaling regulates biological function in a variety of cells. To elucidate the physiological function of Notch signaling in fibroblasts, we ablated Notch1 in mouse (Notch1(Flox/Flox)) embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Notch1-deficient (Notch1(-/-)) MEFs displayed faster growth and motility rate compared to Notch1(Flox/Flox) MEFs. Such phenotypic changes, however, were reversible by reconstitution of Notch1 activation via overexpression of the intracellular domain of Notch1 (NICD1) in Notch1-deficient MEFs. In contrast, constitutive activation of Notch1 signaling by introducing NICD1 into primary human dermal fibroblasts (FF2441), which caused pan-Notch activation, inhibited cell growth and motility, whereas cellular inhibition was relievable when the Notch activation was countered with dominant-negative mutant of Master-mind like 1 (DN-MAML-1). Functionally, "Notch-activated" stromal fibroblasts could inhibit tumor cell growth/invasion. Moreover, Notch activation induced expression of Wnt-induced secreted proteins-1 (WISP-1/CCN4) in FF2441 cells while deletion of Notch1 in MEFs resulted in an opposite effect. Notably, WISP-1 suppressed fibroblast proliferation, and was responsible for mediating Notch1's inhibitory effect since siRNA-mediated blockade of WISP-1 expression could relieve cell growth inhibition. Notch1-induced WISP-1 expression appeared to be Wnt11-dependent, but Wnt1-independent. Blockade of Wnt11 expression resulted in decreased WISP-1 expression and liberated Notch-induced cell growth inhibition. These findings indicated that inhibition of fibroblast proliferation by Notch pathway activation is mediated, at least in part, through regulating Wnt1-independent, but Wnt11-dependent WISP-1 expression.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38811. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: A secreted BMP antagonist, Cer1, fine tunes the spatial organization of the ureteric bud tree during mouse kidney development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The epithelial ureteric bud is critical for mammalian kidney development as it generates the ureter and the collecting duct system that induces nephrogenesis in dicrete locations in the kidney mesenchyme during its emergence. We show that a secreted Bmp antagonist Cerberus homologue (Cer1) fine tunes the organization of the ureteric tree during organogenesis in the mouse embryo. Both enhanced ureteric expression of Cer1 and Cer1 knock out enlarge kidney size, and these changes are associated with an altered three-dimensional structure of the ureteric tree as revealed by optical projection tomography. Enhanced Cer1 expression changes the ureteric bud branching programme so that more trifid and lateral branches rather than bifid ones develop, as seen in time-lapse organ culture. These changes may be the reasons for the modified spatial arrangement of the ureteric tree in the kidneys of Cer1+ embryos. Cer1 gain of function is associated with moderately elevated expression of Gdnf and Wnt11, which is also induced in the case of Cer1 deficiency, where Bmp4 expression is reduced, indicating the dependence of Bmp expression on Cer1. Cer1 binds at least Bmp2/4 and antagonizes Bmp signalling in cell culture. In line with this, supplementation of Bmp4 restored the ureteric bud tip number, which was reduced by Cer1+ to bring it closer to the normal, consistent with models suggesting that Bmp signalling inhibits ureteric bud development. Genetic reduction of Wnt11 inhibited the Cer1-stimulated kidney development, but Cer1 did not influence Wnt11 signalling in cell culture, although it did inhibit the Wnt3a-induced canonical Top Flash reporter to some extent. We conclude that Cer1 fine tunes the spatial organization of the ureteric tree by coordinating the activities of the growth-promoting ureteric bud signals Gndf and Wnt11 via Bmp-mediated antagonism and to some degree via the canonical Wnt signalling involved in branching.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(11):e27676. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Functional genetic variants of c-Jun and their interaction with smoking and drinking increase the susceptibility to lung cancer in southern and eastern Chinese.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human proto-oncogene c-Jun and c-Fos assemble the activator protein-1 complex which is a crucial transcription factor responding to environmental factors and promotes tumorgenesis. We hypothesized that genetic variants in these two genes may alter the carriers' susceptibility to lung cancer. In two independent case-control studies, we genotyped three putative functional polymorphisms (-1318T>G and -673T>C of c-Jun; -60C>T of c-Fos) in southern Chinese and then validated the association in eastern Chinese. We found that compared to -1318TT genotype, the -1318GT/GG variant genotypes had an increased lung cancer risk (OR=1.46, 95% CI=1.26-1.69), and the -673CC genotype had an increased lung cancer risk compared to -673TT/CT genotypes (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.17-1.56) in the total 1,559 cases versus 1,679 controls. After combining these two loci, the number of the risk genotypes was associated with increased cancer risk in a dose-response manner (ptrend=2.21×10(-11)); moreover, the risk genotypes interacted with smoking or drinking status on increasing cancer risk (p values of interaction were 0.009 and 0.007, respectively). Further, we found that those with -1318GT/GG genotypes, -673CC genotypes or both genotypes in c-Jun had higher mRNA and protein expression levels in vivo, and those variants had higher transcription activities in reporter genes in vitro, especially under the stimuli with tobacco extract or alcohol mixture as luciferase assay shown. However, for -60C>T of c-Fos, no significant association was observed for lung cancer risk. Our data suggested that the genetic variants in c-Jun (-1318T>G and -673T>C) increase the carriers' susceptibility to lung cancer via interaction with smoking or drinking on increasing the c-Jun's expression.International Journal of Cancer 12/2011; 131(5):E744-58. · 5.44 Impact Factor