Field evaluation for anthelmintic-resistant ovine gastrointestinal nematodes by in vitro and in vivo assays.
ABSTRACT A coprological survey to analyze the presence of flock resistance to benzimidazoles (BZ) and macrocyclic lactones (ML) was performed in sheep under field conditions. Fecal samples were collected from 2,625 sheep in 72 commercial farms from Galicia (NW Spain). The in vitro (FECRT, fecal egg count reduction test) and in vivo (EHA, egg hatch assay, and LFIA, larval feeding inhibition assay) tests were used to assess the efficacy of these anthelmintics. Coprocultures were also developed to obtain knowledge on the main genera of trichostrongylid nematoda prior to, and after, the administration of the anthelmintics. By using the FECRT, BZ resistance was observed in 13 (18%) flocks, whereas ML resistance was only detected in 2 (3%) farms. The number of resistant flocks to BZ was 21 (29%) by using the EHA and 7 (10%) by means of the LFIA. None of the flocks used in this study showed simultaneous resistance to both employed anthelmintics. The results from the in vitro and in vivo tests revealed that 92% of the flocks FECRT resistant to BZ were also resistant with the EHA. The LFIA confirmed all the farms resistant to ML by using the in vivo test. After the administration of BZ, nematode larvae belonging to Teladorsagia circumcincta (32.2%), Trichostrongylus spp. (29%), Nematodirus spp. (6.5%), and Chabertia ovis (3.2%) were identified. In the flocks receiving ML, only T. circumcincta was identified (57%). We recommend the use of in vitro tests because they are more efficient. As the use of macrocyclic lactones is increasing in this region, further investigation is needed for detecting resistance to the anthelmintic family compounds by the LFIA.
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ABSTRACT: Two experiments were carried out to evaluate a larval development assay for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in O. circumcincta. In Experiment I, the dose responses to levamisole (LEV), thiabendazole (TBZ) and ivermectin (IVM) of 8 isolates of O. circumcincta were measured 34 days after infection (DAI). Four of these isolates were shown to be resistant to 1 or more anthelmintics. With 2 exceptions, all isolates considered to be resistant had higher LD50 values than the susceptible isolates for that anthelmintic. One exception was isolate RM8, which was considered to be resistant to all 3 anthelmintics based on faecal egg count reduction tests in goats, but the LD50 value for LEV did not differ from that for the susceptible isolates. The other exception was an isolate considered to be susceptible to TBZ which had a relatively high LD50 value. In an unrelated trial that was prompted by this finding, this isolate was confirmed to be benzimidazole-resistant. Isolate RM8 and an isolate susceptible to all 3 anthelmintics (SK2) were used in the second experiment, which was conducted to monitor changes in the LD50 values of LEV, TBZ and IVM over time following a single infection of 35,000 infective larvae in young sheep. Faecal samples were collected weekly from 24 to 115 DAI. With all 3 anthelmintics, the LD50 values increased with time to a peak around 50-60 DAI, and then declined to levels similar to those observed soon after patency. This trend was consistent for both isolates. The highest mean LD50 values for isolates SK2 for IVM and TBZ and RM8 for IVM and RM8, respectively, were 1.7 and 1.8 times, and 2.2 and 2.9 times higher than the initial mean LD50 values. There was a clear distinction in LD50 values between isolates at each sampling day for both IVM and TBZ. However, as a consequence of the changes in LD50 values with time, the peak LD50 values of IVM for isolate SK2 were higher than the minimum LD50 values of isolate RM8. As there was no apparent difference in LEV efficacy between these 2 isolates, the data were pooled. The highest mean LD50 value was 2.3 times higher than the initial LD50 value.International Journal for Parasitology 04/1997; 27(3):305-11. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A survey was conducted on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of trichostrongylids on commercial sheep farms in the highveld of Zimbabwe. On ten farms the efficacy of fenbendazole, levamisole and rafoxanide was tested by a faecal egg count reduction test. Benzimidazole resistance was additionally examined using an egg hatch assay with thiabendazole. Results of the faecal egg count reduction tests and larval differentiations showed fenbendazole resistance of Haemonchus sp. on all investigated farms. Resistance of Haemonchus sp. against rafoxanide was demonstrated on all farms with reliable egg counts. Levamisole resistance of Haemonchus sp. was found on most farms but 2 farms showed an efficacy of 100%.Veterinary Parasitology 04/1997; 68(4):383-8. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The negative effects of nematodes in small ruminants can be reduced by use of dewormers but their effectiveness is increasingly limited by the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. The efficacy of benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics in the Philippines was estimated by an in vitro larval development assay using worm eggs recovered from faeces collected from goats and sheep. Two hundred and eighteen farms were selected to represent areas of the country with high goat and sheep populations and the full range of farm sizes, from smallholders with just a few animals to commercial and institutional farms with several hundred. Initial surveys of worm control advisers indicated that BZs have been in continuous widespread use for up to 20 years with little use of other chemical groups. A larval development assay (LDA: DrenchRite) was modified for use with BZs alone to allow up to five samples to be analysed on a single microtitre plate. The assay was validated by comparison with the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). The dominant nematode genera were Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus with small numbers of Oesophagostomum. The range of BZ efficacy estimated from the LDA results was 0-100% and the distribution of efficacy levels was continuous, with mean efficacy of 82 and 64% for goats and sheep, respectively. There were significant associations between efficacy and parameters measured to characterize the sampled farms: size of animal management group, FEC of sample, recent importation of stock and no access to common grazing were all correlated with decreased efficacy. Likewise, low efficacy was associated with reported frequency and number of years that BZ drenches had been used. The LDA was found to be highly suited to estimate efficacy in nematode populations from small farms where performance of a FECRT for even one chemical would be impractical. Using a larval development assay, we have demonstrated a wide efficacy range for BZs against nematodes from all sizes of goat and sheep farms in the tropics.Veterinary Parasitology 03/2004; 120(1-2):107-21. · 2.38 Impact Factor