Hepatitic variant of graft-versus-host disease after donor lymphocyte infusion
ABSTRACT Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of the liver is characterized by bile duct damage and portal lymphocytic infiltrate. We report acute hepatitislike presentation of GVHD after donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). Between April 1998 and September 2001, 73 patients received 94 DLI treatments. Liver GVHD developed after DLI in 22 (30%) patients whose median age was 43 years (range, 21 to 61 years). Onset of liver dysfunction was at 35 days (range, 11 to 406 days) after DLI. Fifteen patients underwent liver biopsy, and the diagnosis of liver GVHD was confirmed in 13 (87%) patients. After viral hepatitis and recent drug exposure were excluded, 11 (50%) patients were given a diagnosis of a hepatitic variant of GVHD based on histologic evidence of lobular hepatitis (n = 5), elevation of maximum serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level more than 10 times the upper normal limit (n = 9), or both. There was a significant difference in maximum ALT (P =.002) and AST (P =.01) level between the hepatitic-variant and classical GVHD groups. GVHD progressed in 14 (64%) patients, and 10 patients died after a median follow-up of 221 days (range, 31-1284 days). These observations suggest that GVHD that occurs after DLI may have distinct clinical features. Hepatitic-variant GVHD should be considered in the differential diagnosis in DLI recipients with unexplained hepatitis.
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ABSTRACT: After allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) liver biopsy is performed for enigmatic liver disorders when noninvasive diagnostic steps have failed in establishing a definitive diagnosis. This document provides an updated consensus on the prerequisites for proper evaluation of liver biopsies in alloHCT patients and the histological diagnostic criteria for liver graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The Working Group’s recommendations for the histological diagnosis of liver GvHD were derived from the peer-reviewed literature and from the consensus diagnosis of a total of 30 coded liver biopsies. Acceptance of the recommendations was tested by a survey distributed to all HCT centers in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Consensus was achieved for biopsy indications, methods of sample acquisition and processing, reporting and interpretation of biopsy findings. As GvHD is variably treated and the treatment modalities have changed over time, the panel endorses the use of more frequent biopsies in clinical studies in order to improve the present challenging clinical and diagnostic situation.Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 02/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00428-013-1528-8 · 2.56 Impact Factor
Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.clml.2013.12.013
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ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT), formerly known as bone marrow transplantation, is an integral part of treatment for many hematological malignancies. HCT is associated with several complications and comorbidities with differential effects on a wide spectrum of organs and tissues. We present an update on HCT-associated complications such as graft versus host disease (GVHD) and infection, with focus on the surgical pathology of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and lung. Although the grading system for GI tract acute GVHD was proposed 40 years ago, recent studies have shed light on minimal histologic criteria for diagnosis of GVHD, as well as its differential diagnosis, including histologic effects of various medications. GI dysfunction in autologous transplant recipients is increasingly appreciated and patients are often biopsied. Acute liver injury in HCT is often due to sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (previously known as venoocclusive disease), or acute GVHD. Liver dysfunction at later time posttransplantation may be associated with acute or chronic GVHD, iron overload, or other causes of hepatitis. Lung injury in HCT is multifactorial, and it remains crucially important to diagnose and treat pulmonary infections. The pulmonary biopsy yields clinically unsuspected diagnoses in the majority of cases and its utilization is likely to increase. The pathology of the skin and kidney in HCT patients are detailed in accompanying articles.Advances in Anatomic Pathology 09/2014; 21(5):301-320. DOI:10.1097/PAP.0000000000000032 · 3.10 Impact Factor