Bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation for treating heart failure with central sleep apnea that is unresponsive to continuous positive airway pressure.
ABSTRACT Cheyne-Stokes respiration with central sleep apnea (CSR-CSA) is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with heart failure (HF). However, some patients do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), so other therapeutic modalities should be considered, such as bi-level positive airway pressure (PAP), which also assists respiration and might be effective for such patients.
The 20 patients with HF because of left ventricular systolic dysfunction were assessed: 8 had ischemic etiology, and all had severe CSA according to the apnea - hypopnea index (AHI) determined by polysomnography. All diagnosed patients underwent repeat polysomnography using CPAP. The AHI improved significantly in 11 (AHI <15), but only slightly in 9, in whom the AHI remained high (>or=15). Bi-level PAP titration significantly improved the AHI in the latter group. Those who were unresponsive to CPAP had significantly lower PaCO(2), higher plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), longer mean duration of CSR and fewer obstructive episodes than CPAP responders. After 6 months of positive airway support with either CPAP (n=9) or bi-level PAP (n=7), BNP levels significantly decreased and left ventricular ejection fraction significantly increased.
Bi-level PAP could be an effective alternative for patients with HF and pure CSR-CSA who are unresponsive to CPAP.
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ABSTRACT: The inter-relationships of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and heart failure (HF) are becoming increasingly well-characterized. The pathways linking the two entities are likely bi-directional and key underlying pathophysiological mechanisms at play include autonomic nervous system fluctuations, intermittent hypoxia, intrathoracic cardiac mechanical influences, rostral fluid shifts and up-regulation of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Given the increased morbidity and mortality which accompanies heart failure, the recognition and treatment of factors such as sleep disordered breathing is paramount in order to mitigate these untoward downstream health consequences. Recently, the management of HF requires combining several treatments including pharmacotherapy, electrophysiologic therapy, and cardiac surgery to target the various complex facets of HF. Despite the development of HF treatments, HF remains to pose a great challenge to the general cardiologist. Herein we review several interventional studies highlighting the effects of treating SDB on HF morbidity and mortality with a notable predominance of literature focusing on HF reduced ejection fraction (HF-REF) as well as emerging data describing SDB treatment effects in HF preserved EF (HF-PEF). These data are compelling yet with intrinsic limitations which underscore the need for appropriately powered clinical trials employing rigorous clinical trials methodology to examine the effect of SDB treatment on HF progression and associated adverse outcomes.Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 10/2014; 8(10):403. DOI:10.1007/s12170-014-0403-8
Article: Heart Failure and the Lung[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is a highly prevalent disease that leads to significant morbidity and mortality. There is increasing evidence that the symptoms of HF are exacerbated by its deleterious effects on lung function. HF appears to cause airway obstruction acutely and leads to impaired gas diffusing capacity and pulmonary hypertension in the longer term. It is postulated that this is the result of recurrent episodes of elevated pulmonary capillary pressure leading to pulmonary oedema and pulmonary capillary stress fracture, which produces lung fibrosis. It is likely that impaired lung function impairs the functional status of HF patients and makes them more prone to central sleep apnoea. (Circ J 2010, 74: 2507-2516)Circulation Journal 12/2010; 74(12):2507-2516. DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-10-0869 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is a life-threatening disease and is a growing public health concern. Despite recent advances in pharmacological management for HF, the morbidity and mortality from HF remain high. Therefore, non-pharmacological approaches for HF are being developed. However, most non-pharmacological approaches are invasive, have limited indication and are considered only for advanced HF. Accordingly, the development of less invasive, non-pharmacological approaches that improve outcomes for patients with HF is important. One such approach may include positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy. In this review, the role of PAP therapy applied through mask interfaces in the wide spectrum of HF care is discussed.World Journal of Cardiology (WJC) 11/2014; 6(11):1175-1191. DOI:10.4330/wjc.v6.i11.1175 · 2.06 Impact Factor