Food-drug interaction of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and the metabolite SN-38
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan (CPT-11) and its metabolite SN-38. EGCG was potentially used to modulate the ATPase activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Experimental Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with EGCG (20mg/kg, i.v.) 10min before CPT-11 (10mg/kg, i.v.) administration, whereas the control group received CPT-11 (10mg/kg, i.v.) only. The biological samples were prepared by the protein precipitation and detected by HPLC-fluorescence detection which provided a good separation of CPT-11 and SN-38 within 10min. The pharmacokinetic data indicate that the area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) of CPT-11 and SN-38 were increased by 57.7 and 18.3%, and AUC in bile were decreased by 15.8 and 46.8%, respectively, for the group pretreated with EGCG. The blood to bile distribution ratio (AUC(bile)/AUC(blood)) was significantly reduced after group coadministration of EGCG, it can be seen that the bile efflux transport system of CPT-11 and SN-38 may be markedly reduced by the treatment of EGCG which plays the role of P-gp inhibitor. In conclusion, EGCG was found to inhibit the transport of CPT-11 and SN-38 into the biliary elimination and their half-lives in plasma could be substantially prolonged. Based on the food-drug interaction, persons taking daily nutritional supplements should be warned of this interaction possibility.
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ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy forms the mainstay of cancer treatment particularly for patients who do not respond to local excision or radiation treatment. However, cancer treatment by drugs is seriously limited by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) associated multi-drug resistance (MDR) in various tumor cells. On the other hand, it is now widely recognized that P-gp also influences drug transport across various biological membranes. P-gp transporter is widely present in the luminal surface of enterocytes, biliary canalicular surface of hepatocytes, apical surface of proximal tubular cells of kidney, endothelial cells of blood brain barrier, etc. thus affecting absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics. Clinical significance of above mentioned carrier is appreciated from the fact that more than fifty percent of existing anti-cancer drugs undergo inhibitable and saturable P-gp mediated efflux. Consequently, there is an increasing trend to optimize pharmacokinetics, enhance antitumour activity and reduce systemic toxicity of existing anti-cancer drugs by inhibiting P-gp mediated transport. Although a wide variety of P-gp inhibitors have been discovered, research efforts are underway to identify the most appropriate one. Flavonoids (polyphenolic herbal constituents) form the third generation, non-pharmaceutical category of P-gp inhibitors. The effects produced by some of these components are found to be comparable to those of well-known P-gp inhibitors verapamil and cyclosporine. Identification of effective P-gp modulator among herbal compounds have an added advantage of being safe, thereby making them ideal candidates for bioavailability enhancement, tissue-penetration (e.g. blood brain barrier (BBB)), decreasing biliary excretion and multi-drug resistance modulating agents. The dual effects, i.e. P-gp modulation and antitumor activity, of these herbal derivatives may synergistically act in cancer chemotherapy. This paper presents an overview of the investigations on the feasibility and application of flavonoids as P-gp modulators for improved efficacy of anti-cancer drugs like taxanes, anthracyclines, epipodophyllotoxins, camptothecins and vinca alkaloids. The review also focuses on flavonoid-drug interactions as well as the reversal activity of flavonoids useful against MDR. In addition, the experimental models which could be used for investigation on P-gp mediated efflux are also discussed.Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 02/2009; 12(1):46-78. · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Binding sites of polyphenolic compounds on human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated using induced Cotton effects on the circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Polyphenolic compounds used in this study are known to be metabolites from tannins and their related polyphenols in food and medicinal plants. The present investigation revealed that the structural differences markedly affected the binding of the compounds to HSA. Protocatechuic acid, together with its methylated compounds vanillic and isovanillic acids, were assigned to be bound to sites I and II of HSA, based on the competitive relationships with site-I-binding phenylbutazone (PB) and site-II-binding diazepam (DP). 4-O-Methylgallic acid, which is the metabolite from gallic acid, was bound to site I on HSA, while gallic acid did not affect the binding of PB and DP at the concentration examined. Neither ellagic acid nor its metabolite urolithin A was competitive with PB and DP on HSA. The addition of digitoxin did not affect the induced CD of the polyphenolic acids examined.Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 10/2009; 57(9):1019-23. DOI:10.1248/cpb.57.1019 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Irinotecan is an anticancer agent that stabilizes topoisomerase I/DNA complexes. So far, no test system has been reported for directly determining irinotecan-induced stabilization of topoisomerase I/DNA complexes in organs in vivo. We adapted an 'in vivo complexes of enzyme to DNA' (ICE) bioassay to assess irinotecan activity in the stomach, duodenum, colon and liver of male Wistar rats after a single treatment with irinotecan (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally). This was compared to the control group receiving 0.9% sodium chloride intraperitoneally. In addition, the DNA strand breaking properties of irinotecan were measured in mucosal cells from the distal colon by single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) to investigate the association of topoisomerase poisoning and DNA damage in vivo. A single dose of irinotecan significantly increased amounts of topoisomerase I covalently bound to DNA in stomach, duodenum, colon and liver. Concomitantly, the irinotecan-treated group showed significantly higher amounts of DNA strand breaks in colon mucosa cells compared to the control group. The ICE bioassay and the comet assay represent two test systems for investigating the impact of topoisomerase I poisons on DNA integrity in colon tissues of Wistar rats.Biotechnology Journal 03/2010; 5(3):321-7. DOI:10.1002/biot.200900174 · 3.71 Impact Factor