Race differences in activity, fitness, and BMI in female eighth graders categorized by sports participation status
Division of Epidemiology and Community Health School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015, USA. Pediatric exercise science
(Impact Factor: 1.45).
The purpose of this study was to identify racial differences in physical activity (PA), fitness, and BMI in female 8th-grade sports participants and nonparticipants. Girls from 31 South Carolina middle schools (N = 1,903, 48% White; mean age = 13.6 +/- 0.63) reported PA and previous year sports-team participation, completed a submaximal fitness test, and had height and weight measured. Sports team participation was positively associated with PA and negatively associated with television viewing and BMI, in a dose-response manner. Compared with Whites, African-Americans reported less PA and more television viewing, and had greater BMI scores. Whereas PA intervention programs that incorporate a sports-team component could benefit all girls, African-American girls could be specifically targeted because of their lower physical activity.
Available from: Jill M Maples
Available from: drum.lib.umd.edu
Available from: Patricia Deuster
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ABSTRACT: Obesity has reached epidemic levels and the incidence continues to rise. The current study was seeking to examine the hypothesis that obesity may reflect dysfunctioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in response to stressors. African American persons are at greatest risk, but reasons for this difference are unknown. We studied 126 healthy men and women of Caucasian (CA) and African American (AA) ethnicity and examined their responses to physiologic stressors: exercise and ingestion of a meal. Methods: The HPA axis was studied by using two stress paradigms and two steroid regimens: hydrocortisone (HCO) and dexamethasone (DEX). We were able to detect subtle differences in HPA axis reactivity in obese individuals that might contribute to morbidity and perhaps even make individuals resistant to therapeutic interventions. Results: AA, particularly those who are obese by percent body fat, are highly sensitive to glucocorticoids. This was noted during exercise under conditions of DEX and in response to a meal, under all conditions but to a greater extent under conditions for DEX. Importantly, AA had significantly lower cardiovascular fitness than CA. Fitness was inversely related to obesity, insulin resistance, and glucocorticoid sensitivity. Lastly, lipid profiles of AA are more favorable that age-matched, healthy CA. Using either triglycerides or HDLcholesterol as indicators of cardiovascular disease would indicate minimal risk. Conclusions: Over the past five years, we achieved all goals for this project. Notably, we enrolled 160 participants and completed testing on 126.
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