Department of Life Science, Division of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Center for Cell Signaling and Drug Discovery Research, Ewha Womans University, 11-1 Daehyun-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea.
Redox regulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) has been described, but the molecular mechanism underlying such regulation has remained unclear. We recently showed that a novel disulfide reductase, TRP14, inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced NF-kappaB activation, and we identified the dynein light chain LC8, which interacts with the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha, as a potential substrate of TRP14. We now show the molecular mechanism by which NF-kappaB activation is redox-dependently regulated through LC8. LC8 inhibited TNFalpha-induced NF-kappaB activation in HeLa cells by interacting with IkappaBalpha and thereby preventing its phosphorylation by IkappaB kinase (IKK), without affecting the activity of IKK itself. TNFalpha induced the production of reactive oxygen species, which oxidized LC8 to a homodimer linked by the reversible formation of a disulfide bond between the Cys(2) residues of each subunit and thereby resulted in its dissociation from IkappaBalpha. Butylated hydroxyanisol, an antioxidant, and diphenyleneiodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, attenuated the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha by TNFalpha stimulation. In addition LC8 inhibited NF-kappaB activation by other stimuli including interleukin-1beta and lipopolysaccharide, both of which generated reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, TRP14 catalyzed reduction of oxidized LC8. Together, our results indicate that LC8 binds IkappaBalpha in a redox-dependent manner and thereby prevents its phosphorylation by IKK. TRP14 contributes to this inhibitory activity by maintaining LC8 in a reduced state.
"NOX is the major enzymatic source of cellular superoxide anion. Through the production of small and transient amounts of superoxide, NOX coactivates membrane receptor-mediated signaling cascades, including those triggered by cytokines (e.g., TNFα), growth factors, and hormones (e.g., insulin)   . However, sustained NOX and/or uncontrolled activation (e.g., chronic inflammation) leads to oxidative stress, which is proposed to be a major contributor to MetS and T2D development  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the capacity of dietary (-)-epicatechin (EC) to mitigate insulin resistance through the modulation of redox-regulated mechanisms in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adolescent rats were fed a regular chow diet without or with high fructose (HFr) (10% (w/v)) in drinking water for 8 weeks, and a group of HFr-fed rats was supplemented with EC in the diet. HFr-fed rats developed insulin resistance which was mitigated by EC supplementation. Accordingly, the activation of components of the insulin signaling cascade (insulin receptor (IR), IRS-1, Akt and ERK1/2) was impaired, while negative regulators (PKC, IKK, JNK and PTP1B) were upregulated in the liver and adipose tissue of HFr rats. These alterations were partially or totally prevented by EC supplementation. In addition, EC inhibited events which contribute to insulin resistance: HFr-associated increased expression and activity of NADPH oxidase, activation of redox-sensitive signals, expression of NF-κB-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and some sub-arms of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Collectively, these findings indicate that EC supplementation can mitigate HFr-induced insulin resistance and are relevant to define interventions that can prevent/mitigate MetS-associated insulin resistance.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 04/2014; 72. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2014.04.011 · 5.74 Impact Factor
"NF-κβ activation triggers inflammatory responses by releasing interleukins IL-1β and IL-8 cytokines , . Reasonably, there have been reported several different but interconnected concepts involving the stimuli like TNFα, pili, IL-1β and lipopolysaccharide for the generation of reactive oxygen species to oxidize DYNLL1 . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoplasmic dynein light chain 1 (DYNLL1) is a component of large protein complex, which is implicated in cargo transport processes, and is known to interact with many cellular and viral proteins through its short consensus motif (K/R)XTQT. Still, it remains to be explored that bacterial proteins also exhibit similar recognition sequences to make them vulnerable to host defense mechanism. We employed multiple docking protocols including AUTODOCK, PatchDock, ZDOCK, DOCK/PIERR and CLUSPRO to explore the DYNLL1 and Pilin interaction followed by molecular dynamics simulation assays. Subsequent structural comparison of the predicted binding site for DYNLL1-Pilin complex against the experimentally verified DYNLL1 binding partners was performed to cross check the residual contributions and to determine the binding mode. On the basis of in silico analysis, here we describe a novel interaction of DYNLL1 and receptor binding domain of Pilin (the main protein constituent of bacterial type IV Pili) of gram negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO), which is the third most common nosocomial pathogen associated with the life-threatening infections. Evidently, our results underscore that Pilin specific motif (KSTQD) exhibits a close structural similarity to that of Vaccinia virus polymerase, P protein Rabies and P protein Mokola viruses. We speculate that binding of DYNLL1 to Pilin may trigger an uncontrolled inflammatory response of the host immune system during P. aeruginosa chronic infections thereby opening a new pioneering area to investigate the role of DYNLL1 in gram negative bacterial infections other than viral infections. Moreover, by manifesting a strict correspondence between sequence and function, our study anticipates a novel drug target site to control the complications caused by P. aeruginosa infections.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(10):e76730. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076730 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In the canonical pathway (Fig. 3), inhibitory IκB proteins bind to dimers of RelA, c-Rel, and p50 forming an inactive complex in the cytosol . Superoxide anion and derived species, e.g., H 2 O 2 , can oxidize thiol groups in LC8, a protein that prevents IκB processing . LC8 oxidation leads to its dissociation from IκB, which is subsequently phosphorylated on two serines (S32 and S36) by IκB kinases (IKK). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plant polyphenols are among the most abundant phytochemicals present in human diets. Increasing evidence supports the health-promoting effects of certain polyphenols, including flavonoids. This review discusses current knowledge of the capacity of monomeric flavanols, i.e., (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, and their derived procyanidins to modulate cell signaling and the associations of these actions with better health. Flavanols and procyanidins can regulate cell signaling through different mechanisms of action. Monomers and dimeric procyanidins can be transported inside cells and directly interact and modulate the activity of signaling proteins and/or prevent oxidation. Larger and nonabsorbable procyanidins can regulate cell signaling by interacting with cell membrane proteins and lipids, inducing changes in membrane biophysics, and by modulating oxidant production. All these actions would be limited by the bioavailability of flavanols at the target tissue. The protection from cardiac and vascular disease and from cancer that is associated with a high consumption of fruit and vegetables could be in part explained by the capacity of flavanols and related procyanidins to modulate proinflammatory and oncogenic signals.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 06/2011; 51(4):813-23. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.06.002 · 5.74 Impact Factor
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