The genetic variation of the tenomodulin gene (TNMD) is associated with serum levels of systemic immune mediators - The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

Department of Clinical Nutrition and Food and Health Research Centre, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland.
Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics (Impact Factor: 7.33). 07/2008; 10(7):536-44. DOI: 10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181772129
Source: PubMed


We have reported that the genetic variation of the tenomodulin gene (TNMD) is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), central obesity, and impaired glucose metabolism and the TNMD mRNA levels correlate with serum and mRNA levels of inflammatory markers. Our objective was to investigate the genetic associations of the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the TNMD gene with the serum levels of systemic immune mediators.
Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped from 507 participants of the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. All subjects had body mass index >25 and impaired glucose tolerance.
The sequence variation of tenomodulin was consistently associated with the serum concentrations of acute phase reactants, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and CCR5 receptor ligands. The genotype effects were modified by status of glucose metabolism and central obesity. Markers associated with increased risk of T2DM in our previous study were associated with serum concentrations of acute phase proteins in men so that the subjects possessing the genotypes associated with increased risk of T2DM had higher serum concentrations of acute phase reactants.
These results indicate that the genetic variation of TNMD is associated with low-grade inflammation. The putative link between TNMD and T2DM could be mediated through the effects on systemic immune mediators.

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    • "According to the results of the present study, genetic variation in the TNMD gene is associated with the prevalence of AMD in women. The genotypes rs2073163-CC and rs1155974-TT that associated with a higher prevalence of exudative AMD among women in the present study (Appendix 1), were linked with higher serum concentrations of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and chemokine, CC motif ligand 5 in women [42]. The same markers were associated with higher serum acute phase reactant concentrations among men [42]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tenomodulin (TNMD) is located in the X-chromosome encoding a putative angiogenesis inhibitor which is expressed in retina. Associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms of TNMD with the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were examined. Six markers covering 75% of the common sequence variation in the coding region of TNMD and 10 kb up- and downstream were genotyped in a sample consisting of 89 men and 175 women with exudative AMD, 18 men and 25 women with atrophic AMD, and 55 men and 113 women without AMD. All participants were over 65 years old and did not have diabetes mellitus. Due to the chromosomal locus, the association of genotypes with AMD was assessed genderwise. Three markers, rs1155974, rs2073163, and rs7890586, were associated with a risk of AMD in women. In comparison to women with other genotypes, the women who were homozygous for the minor allele (genotypes rs1155974-TT or rs2073163-CC) had 2.6 fold (p=0.021) or 1.9 fold (p=0.067) risk for having AMD, respectively. These differences were due to the unequal prevalence of exudative AMD. In comparison to women who were homozygous for the major alleles, the women with rs1155974-TT genotype had a 2.8 fold risk (p=0.021 in additive model; p=0.022 in recessive model) for exudative AMD, and the women with rs2073163-CC genotype had a 1.8 fold risk (p=0.09 in additive model; p=0.038 in recessive model). Furthermore, women carrying the rare rs7890586-AA genotype had a significantly smaller risk for having AMD than women with the other genotypes (odds ratio 0.083; p=0.001 in recessive model), but due to the low frequency of this genotype, this finding must be interpreted cautiously. The false discovery rate was <10% for all of the aforementioned results. On the basis of the putative antiangiogenic role of TNMD and the present genetic associations of TNMD with AMD in women, we suggest that TNMD could be a novel candidate gene for AMD. These results should be confirmed in further studies.
    Molecular vision 02/2009; 15:762-70. DOI:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2008.472.x · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have reported that the sequence variation in the tenomodulin (TNMD) gene is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), central obesity and serum levels of systemic immune mediators in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS), which is a longitudinal lifestyle intervention study on 522 middle-aged persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the association with T2DM, observed in the DPS could be replicated in a larger, cross-sectional population-based random sample of 5298 men (3020 with normoglycaemia, 984 with impaired fasting glucose, 436 with IGT and 811 with T2DM) from the region of Kuopio, eastern Finland. To further explore the putative mechanisms linking TNMD to T2DM and metabolic syndrome, we studied the associations of TNMD sequence variation with lipid abnormalities characteristic to metabolic syndrome. The association with T2DM risk was not replicated, but significant associations were found with serum low-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol in a body mass index-dependent manner. These associations were also observed in the men of DPS, whereas in women these associations were not significant. These results from two independent study populations suggest that the genetic variation in TNMD could modulate cholesterol metabolism in obese men.
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