Racial and ethnic disparities in detection and treatment of depression and anxiety among psychiatric and primary health care visits, 1995-2005.
ABSTRACT Recent evidence questions whether formerly documented disparities in care for common mental disorders among African Americans and Hispanics still remain. Also, whether disparities exist mainly in psychiatric settings or primary health care settings is unknown.
To comprehensively examine time trends in outpatient diagnosis and treatment of depression and anxiety among ethnic groups in primary care and psychiatric settings.
Analyses of office-based outpatient visits from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Study from 1995-2005 (n = 96,075).
Visits to office-based primary care physicians and psychiatrists in the United States.
Diagnosed with depression or anxiety, received counseling or a referral for counseling, received an antidepressant prescription, and any counseling or antidepressant care.
In these analyses of 10-year trends in treatment of common mental disorders, disparities in counseling/referrals for counseling, antidepressant medications, and any care vastly improved or were eliminated over time in psychiatric visits. Continued disparities in diagnoses, counseling/referrals for counseling, antidepressant medication, and any care are found in primary care visits.
Disparities in care for depression and anxiety among African Americans and Hispanics remain in primary care. Quality improvement efforts are needed to address cultural and linguistic barriers to care.
Article: Documentation of Psychiatric Disorders and Related Factors in a Large Sample Population of HIV-Positive Patients in California.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This retrospective cohort study examined electronic medical records of HIV-positive patients in California (N = 7,834) to find the prevalence of any psychiatric condition and the associations between several factors and the likelihood of these disorders. Approximately 53 % of the patients in this study had a documented psychiatric condition, including 23 % who had a mood disorder, 19 % who had a substance-related disorder, and 16 % who had an anxiety disorder. After controlling for potential confounders, significant positive associations (p < 0.001) were found between female gender and the presence of any mood disorder (adjusted odds ratio [95 % confidence interval, 95 %CI] = 1.58 [1.26-1.99]) or anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.54 [1.18-2.02]) and between homosexual orientation and the presence of any psychiatric condition (AOR = 1.33 [1.15-1.55]), mood disorder (AOR = 1.71 [1.42-2.07]), or anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.41 [1.22-1.88]). There were also significant negative associations between African-American race and the presence of any psychiatric condition (AOR = 0.68 [0.60-0.77]), mood disorder (AOR = 0.74 [0.64-0.86]), anxiety disorder (AOR = 0.43 [0.36-0.52]), or substance-related disorder (AOR = 0.78 [0.67-0.91]) and between state/federal insurance and the presence of any psychiatric condition (AOR = 0.70 [0.62-0.79]), mood disorder (AOR = 0.71 [0.62-0.80]), or anxiety disorder (AOR = 0.77 [0.66-0.89]).AIDS and Behavior 12/2012; · 3.49 Impact Factor
Article: A review of the evidence for disparities in child vs adult health care: a disparity in disparities.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Racial and ethnic health disparities in primary care have been well documented in the US healthcare system. However, very little attention has been directed toward inequities in child health. The aim of this review is to provide context for the scope of the challenges associated with addressing pediatric health disparities in primary care by comparing the weight of evidence regarding racial/ethnic health disparities for children vs adults. A multisystem health disparities conceptual model will frame the search strategy and analysis of the review. This paper will: (1) identify knowledge deficits in the understanding of existing disparities in pediatric primary care relative to adult primary care; (2) assess root causes of disparities for children vs adults; and (3) propose recommendations for a research agenda and policy implementation to eliminate disparities in pediatric primary care.Journal of the National Medical Association 08/2010; 102(8):684-91. · 1.16 Impact Factor
Article: Promotoras as mental health practitioners in primary care: a multi-method study of an intervention to address contextual sources of depression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We assessed the role of promotoras--briefly trained community health workers--in depression care at community health centers. The intervention focused on four contextual sources of depression in underserved, low-income communities: underemployment, inadequate housing, food insecurity, and violence. A multi-method design included quantitative and ethnographic techniques to study predictors of depression and the intervention's impact. After a structured training program, primary care practitioners (PCPs) and promotoras collaboratively followed a clinical algorithm in which PCPs prescribed medications and/or arranged consultations by mental health professionals and promotoras addressed the contextual sources of depression. Based on an intake interview with 464 randomly recruited patients, 120 patients with depression were randomized to enhanced care plus the promotora contextual intervention, or to enhanced care alone. All four contextual problems emerged as strong predictors of depression (chi square, p < .05); logistic regression revealed housing and food insecurity as the most important predictors (odds ratios both 2.40, p < .05). Unexpected challenges arose in the intervention's implementation, involving infrastructure at the health centers, boundaries of the promotoras' roles, and "turf" issues with medical assistants. In the quantitative assessment, the intervention did not lead to statistically significant improvements in depression (odds ratio 4.33, confidence interval overlapping 1). Ethnographic research demonstrated a predominantly positive response to the intervention among stakeholders, including patients, promotoras, PCPs, non-professional staff workers, administrators, and community advisory board members. Due to continuing unmet mental health needs, we favor further assessment of innovative roles for community health workers.Journal of Community Health 09/2010; 36(2):316-31. · 1.28 Impact Factor