Prenatal depression in Latinas in the U.S. and Mexico.
ABSTRACT The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their associated risk factors during pregnancy in Latinas in the United States (U.S.) and Mexico.
The sample included 108 women in the U.S. whose data were obtained from medical chart reviews in a community clinic in Washington, D.C., and 117 women in Mexico who participated in face-to-face interviews in the waiting rooms of primary care community centers in Mexico City. Variables, chosen to match in both countries for comparisons, were: socio-demographics, pregnancy gestation and order, social support, depressive symptoms, personal history of depression, family psychiatric history, and suicidal thoughts. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).
The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 32.4% for pregnant Latinas and 36.8% for Mexicans (CES-D > or = 16), and 15.7% and 23.9% (CES-D > or = 24), respectively, with no differences between groups. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses showed that for U.S. Latinas: (1) being more educated predicted depressive symptoms (CES-D > or = 16), and (2) second trimester, as compared to first, also predicted symptoms (CES-D > or /= 24). (3) History of suicidal thoughts predicted symptoms in Latinas in the U.S. (CES-D > or = 24) and in Mexico (using both definitions of high symptoms), and (4) living with a partner but not formally married and multi-parous condition predicted symptoms (CES-D > or /= 24) among pregnant Mexicans.
A high prevalence of depressive symptoms and significant risk factors during pregnancy were found in Latinas in U.S. and Mexico, suggesting increased risk for postpartum major depression. Implications for screening and interventions are discussed.
SourceAvailable from: Rebeca Robles GarcíaSalud publica de Mexico 02/2013; 55(1):74-80. DOI:10.1590/S0036-36342013000100011 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: La sintomatología depresiva prenatal, por su alta prevalencia (22% a 37%) y consecuencias negativas sobre la salud de la madre, el producto y el curso del embarazo, requiere de detección oportuna para proporcionar apoyo y tratamiento adecuados. La CESD es una escala para identificar síntomas de depresión, de fácil y rápida aplicación y con validez adecuada en gestantes. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la validez y confiabilidad de la CESD en mujeres mexicanas embarazadas, así como la sensibilidad, especificidad y valores predictivos usando el SCID como estándar de oro.Salud Mental 02/2012; 35(1):57-62. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Perinatal depression is increasingly recognized as a significant public mental health problem; consequently, there is a major interest in developing strategies to prevent postpartum depression that may help reduce its detrimental consequences. However, the unique experiences associated with the perinatal period make it more difficult to recruit participants at this stage and to retain them over time when assessing prevention interventions. The aim of the study is to examine retention rates and predictors of retention in a longitudinal, randomized controlled trial (RCT) to prevent postnatal depression. Method Participants: Pregnant women (N=377) at risk of depression were randomized to intervention or usual care condition and assessed during pregnancy and at 6 weeks and 4-6 months postpartum. Intervention: The intervention was designed by modifying a previously evaluated one and includes information on normal pregnancy and the postpartum period, from psychoanalytic and risk factors perspectives. It attempts to reduce depression levels by increasing positive thinking and pleasant activities, improving self-esteem, increasing self-care, learning skills to strengthen social support, and exploring unrealistic expectations about pregnancy and motherhood. It is delivered in eight two-hour weekly group sessions during pregnancy. Measures: Depressive symptoms were measured using the second edition of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II); anxiety symptoms with the corresponding subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90) and social support with the Social Support Apgar (SSA). A short form of 12 items representing potential stressors was used as a measurement of stressful life events and the Abbreviated Version of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (A-DAS) measured partner relationship.