Gastric bypass surgery in rats produces weight loss modeling after human gastric bypass.
ABSTRACT The study of the mechanisms of weight loss after bariatric surgery requires an animal model that mimics the human procedure and subsequent weight loss. A rat model eliminates the cognitive efforts associated with human weight loss and gain.
A technique for gastric bypass (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB]) was developed in Sprague-Dawley rats. A 1- to 2-cc pouch is created from the uppermost stomach using a linear stapler. A 10-cm biliopancreatic limb and 15-cm Roux limb are anastomosed side to side with running nonabsorbable suture. The gastrojejunostomy is created with a single layer of running nonabsorbable suture. Four rats underwent RYGB. Weight loss was compared to four sham rats that had a midline incision and left 60 min with an open abdomen before closure.
RYGB rats lost an average of 16.5% body weight (BW) at 1 week, 22% BW at 2 weeks, 20% BW at 3 weeks, and 11% BW at 4 weeks. The RYGB rat's weight was basically level after 4 weeks. The shams lost an average of 4% BW at 1 week, 1% BW at 2 weeks, and 0% BW at 3 weeks and gained an average of 2% at weeks. Subjectively, the RYGB rats were less interested in chow and frequently had chow left in their cage.
A Sprague-Dawley rat model for gastric bypass has been developed and yields approximately 11% BW loss. This will allow investigators to objectively view factors associated with weight loss without the confounding cognitive factors in humans.
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ABSTRACT: Brain neurotransmitters, serotonin and norepinephrine, play an important role in the central nervous control of energy balance and are involved in symptomatology related to both obesity and depression. Therefore both serotonin and norepinephrine neural pathways have been paid a special attention as targets for the antiobesity drugs, antidepressants, and drugs used in the treatment of eating disorders. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) have been used in the treatment of depression and eating disorders but have failed to achieve sustained weight loss in the treatment of obesity. Sibutramine, a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, which induces satiety and prevents decline in metabolic rate associated with a hypocaloric diet, is currently the sole centrally acting drug indicated for the long-term treatment of obesity. Depression, dietary disinhibition (evaluated by the Eating Inventory [EI]), and stress are associated with the accumulation of abdominal fat and the development of metabolic syndrome and related diseases. Subjects with abdominal obesity demonstrate neuroendocrine abnormalities which result in disturbances in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function. Treatment with SSRI might interrupt the vicious circle which leads to endocrine abnormalities and the accumulation of abdominal fat. Obesity treatment with sibutramine results, not only in significant weight loss, but also in reduction of abdominal fat and in the improvement of health risks associated with metabolic syndrome (lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and uric acid), as well as in the decline in disinhibition score of the EI. In a 1-year sibutramine trial, only a decrease in the disinhibition score remained a significant correlate of weight loss among the psychobehavioral and nutritional factors which were taken into account.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 1083:252-69. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We determined whether Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)-induced protracted weight loss is associated with an increase in anorectic peptide YY (PYY) and decreased gastrointestinal (GI) motility. RYGB and control sham-operated GI intact obese (SO Obese) and sham-operated GI intact pair-fed (PF) rats were studied. Postoperatively, body weight (BW) and food intake were measured for 90 days. Rats were killed to measure PYY, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1). Ninety-day food intake trends were examined by quadratic trend analysis. On the basis of a 28-day weight loss rate, PYY also was measured at 14 and 28 days. Peak 28-day PYY results corresponded with peak BW loss rate; thus, gastric emptying (GE) and intestinal transit time were measured. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's pairwise multiple comparison. At 90 days, BW in SO Obese versus PF versus RYGB rats was 801 +/- 15 g versus 661 +/- 24 g versus 538 +/- 32 g respectively (P < .05). Concentrations of plasma PYY were increased, while plasma ghrelin was decreased in RYGB versus SO Obese and PF (P < .05). CCK and GLP-1 were unchanged. In RYGB versus controls, PYY was increased at 14 and 28 days but was most elevated at 28 days. In RYGB versus controls, GE was delayed (P < .05) and intestinal transit time was longer (P < .05). After RYGB, an increase in PYY and a decrease in ghrelin occurred, probably explaining the decrease in food intake, the slower GE and transit time, which contributed to weight loss. Longitudinal studies can be performed with the use of our RYGB model, providing insight into weight loss mechanisms by generating long-term follow-up data currently not available in human studies.Surgery 09/2005; 138(2):283-90. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.Eating Behaviors 12/2006; 7(4):323-32. · 1.58 Impact Factor