Stressful life events and major depressive disorders.
ABSTRACT This study examined the relationship between stressful life events (SLE) and recurrent major depressive disorders. Three groups of 50 subjects were assessed: Patients with recurrent major depressive disorder with melancholic features; patients with borderline personality disorder; and healthy controls. Interviews for AXIS I and II DSM-IV Disorders were used for diagnosis. The Israel Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Event Scale and the Coddington Life Events Schedule were used to measure life events and were confirmed with an interview. Beck Depression Inventory was also administered. The proportions of loss-related events in childhood and in the year preceding the first episode were higher in the depressed group than in the control groups during the same time period. Proportions of SLE, uncontrolled and independent events were also more common in the depressed patients in the year preceding the first episode. No category of SLE differentiated the groups following the first depressive episode. The study's conclusion is that SLE play an important role in the onset of depressive disorders. There are specific kinds of SLE that occur in childhood and in the year preceding the first episode. SLE has a less significant role in the maintenance of this illness.
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ABSTRACT: The aetiology of depression is multifactorial, with biological, cognitive and environmental factors across the life course influencing risk of a depressive episode. There is inconsistent evidence linking early life development and later depression. The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between low birthweight (LBW), infant neurodevelopment, and acute and chronic stress as components in pathways to depression in adulthood.Psychological Medicine 02/2014; · 5.43 Impact Factor
Chapter: Who is Affected by DepressionHandbook of Depression, Edited by Shubhangi Parkar, 01/2012: chapter Who is Affected by Depression; Elsevier.
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ABSTRACT: Clinical evidence suggests that depression and trauma predispose the subject to panic. Accordingly, here we examined the late effects of uncontrollable stress, a presumptive model of depression and/or traumatic disorder, on panic-like behaviors evoked by electrical stimulation of the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG). Changes in anxiety and depression were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced-swimming test (FST), respectively. Rats with electrodes in the DPAG were subjected to a 7-day shuttle-box one-way escape yoked training with foot-shocks either escapable (ES) or inescapable (IS). The day after the end of one-way escape training, rats were trained in a two-way escape novel task (test-session) to ascertain the effectiveness of uncontrollable stress. DPAG stimulations were carried out in an open field, both before the escape training and 2 and 7 days after it, and EPM and FST were performed on the 8th and 10th days afterwards, respectively. Controls were either trained with fictive shocks (FS) or subjected to intracranial stimulations only. Although the ES rats performed significantly better than the IS group in the two-way escape task, groups did not differ with respect to either the anxiety or depression scores. Unexpectedly, however, IS rats showed a marked attenuation of DPAG-evoked freezing and flight behaviors relative to both the ES and FS groups, 2 and 7 days after one-way escape training. The conjoint inhibition of passive (freezing) and active (flight) defensive behaviors suggests that IS inhibits a DPAG in-built motivational system that may be implicated in depressed patients' difficulties in coping with daily-life stress.European Journal of Neuroscience 11/2013; · 3.67 Impact Factor