Monitoring of brevetoxins in the Karenia brevis bloom-exposed Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica).
ABSTRACT Brevetoxin uptake and elimination were examined in Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) exposed to recurring blooms of the marine alga Karenia brevis in Sarasota Bay, FL, over a three-year period. Brevetoxins were monitored by in vitro assays (ELISA, cytotoxicity assay, and receptor binding assay) and LC-MS, with in vivo toxicity of shellfish extracts assessed by the traditional mouse bioassay. Measurements by all methods reflected well the progression and magnitude of the blooms. Highest levels recorded by mouse bioassay at bloom peak were 157 MU/100g. Oysters were toxic by mouse bioassay at levels >or=20 MU/100g for up to two weeks after bloom dissipation, whereas brevetoxins were measurable by in vitro assays and LC-MS for several months afterwards. For the structure-based methods, summed values for the principal brevetoxin metabolites of PbTx-2 (cysteine and cysteine sulfoxide conjugates), as determined by LC-MS, were highly correlated (r(2)=0.90) with composite toxin measurements by ELISA. ELISA and LC-MS values also correlated well (r(2)=0.74 and 0.73, respectively) with those of mouse bioassay. Pharmacology-based cytotoxicity and receptor binding assays did not correlate as well (r(2)=0.65), and were weakly correlated with mouse bioassay (r(2)=0.48 and 0.50, respectively). ELISA and LC-MS methods offer rapid screening and confirmation, respectively, of brevetoxin contamination in the oyster, and are excellent alternatives to mouse bioassay for assessing oyster toxicity following K. brevis blooms.
- European Neuropsychopharmacology 09/2011; 21. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the literature describing research performed over the past decade on the known and possible exposures and human health effects associated with Florida red tides. These harmful algal blooms are caused by the dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, and similar organisms, all of which produce a suite of natural toxins known as brevetoxins. Florida red tide research has benefited from a consistently funded, long-term research program, that has allowed an interdisciplinary team of researchers to focus their attention on this specific environmental issue—one that is critically important to Gulf of Mexico and other coastal communities. This long-term interdisciplinary approach has allowed the team to engage the local community, identify measures to protect public health, take emerging technologies into the field, forge advances in natural products chemistry, and develop a valuable pharmaceutical product. The review includes a brief discussion of the Florida red tide organisms and their toxins, and then focuses on the effects of these toxins on animals and humans, including how these effects predict what we might expect to see in exposed people.Harmful Algae 01/2011; 10(2):224-233. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and northern quahog (= hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria) are two species of economic and ecological significance in east coast waters of the United States and the Gulf of Mexico. Commercial industries for these species, especially within the state of Florida, are significant. The current study was undertaken to build upon the already established body of knowledge surrounding effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on shellfish, to provide an understanding of the kinetics of brevetoxins within shellfish tissues, and to provide an estimate of brevetoxin retention times in these shellfish after a bloom event. Individual clams and oysters were exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate, K. brevis at a bloom concentration of 5 × 105 cells·L-1 for eight days and then transferred to filtered water for depuration. Individuals were sampled periodically to determine depuration rates. Concentrations of brevetoxins (and/or their metabolites measured as PbTx-3 equivalent) in tissues were determined using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). After five days of exposure, brevetoxin levels in tissues of both species reached concentrations well above the regulatory limit of 800 ng g-1 (Pb-TX3 equivalent). Averaged concentration of brevetoxins in clams was 1000 ng g-1, while the oysters averaged 1986 ng g-1. After two weeks of depuration, tissue concentrations in both species were below regulatory levels with clams averaging ∼204 ng g-1 and oysters averaging ∼437 ng g-1. Toxins (or their metabolities) remained detectable in both clams (139 days) and oysters (82 days) for the duration of the experiment.Toxicon 02/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor