Amniocentesis in pregnant HIV-infected patients. Absence of mother-to-child viral transmission in a series of selected patients.
ABSTRACT To assess the risk of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women undergoing diagnostic amniocentesis, and to identify possible predictive factors.
This was a single center retrospective study. The records of 330 HIV-infected pregnant women booked in our antenatal clinic from 31 January 2001 to 31 January 2006 were analyzed. Women who actually underwent diagnostic amniocentesis ("amniocentesis performed" group) were compared to those eligible for amniocentesis but who did not undergo the procedure ("amniocentesis withheld" group).
During the time period, 318 liveborn babies were delivered (9 HIV infected (2.8%)). Thirty-four women (35 fetuses) were eligible for diagnostic amniocentesis. Amniocentesis was performed in 11 (32.4%) of these women (12 fetuses, none infected among the 9 liveborns) and withheld in 23 (67.6%) women. Among the 19 liveborn babies in this latter group, 1 (5.3%) was infected. There was no statistical difference in vertical transmission rate between the whole cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women and the group of women eligible for amniocentesis; or between the women who actually had or did not have an amniocentesis. The women who did undergo amniocentesis all received highly active antiretroviral combination therapy with three drugs; all but two had an undetectable HIV viral load, only one had immunosuppression and none had HCV co-infection.
No vertical transmission was observed in a group of nine liveborn babies after amniocentesis performed in selected HIV-infected pregnant women. In the presence of high genetic risk during pregnancy, amniocentesis can be considered after proper patient counselling.
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ABSTRACT: The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A-women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B-women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population.Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2013; 2013:914272.
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ABSTRACT: The current standard of care in Canadian obstetrical practice is to offer pregnant women the opportunity for prenatal investigation to diagnose congenital abnormalities. Prenatal amniocentesis is Canada's most commonly practiced invasive procedure for the diagnosis of chromosomal and single gene disorders. The potential risk of intrapartum HIV transmission during amniocentesis raises several ethical concerns and limits the availability of prenatal genetic testing for HIV-positive pregnant women. Complete virological suppression with antiretroviral therapy may alleviate the risk of mother-to-child transmission during amniocentesis and increase accessibility of this important diagnostic tool in the HIV-positive population. The present report describes a case involving a 32-year-old HIV-positive pregnant woman whose plasma viral load was undetectable on antiretroviral therapy; she underwent successful prenatal amniocentesis without transmission of HIV to her infant.The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale / AMMI Canada 01/2013; 24(3):e91-5. · 0.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The overall purpose of these guidelines is to provide guidance on best clinical practice in the treatment and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women in the UK. The scope includes guidance on the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) both to prevent HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and for the welfare of the mother herself, guidance on mode of delivery and recommendations in specific patient populations where other factors need to be taken into consideration,such as coinfection with other agents. The guidelines are aimed at clinical professionals directly involved with, and responsible for, the care of pregnant women with HIV infection.HIV Medicine 09/2012; 13 Suppl 2:87-157. · 3.45 Impact Factor