Article

All-trans retinoic acid in acute promyelocytic leukemia: long-term outcome and prognostic factor analysis from the North American Intergroup protocol.

Northwestern University, Feinburg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 12/2002; 100(13):4298-302. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2002-02-0632
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We previously reported a benefit for all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in both induction and maintenance therapy in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To determine the durability of this benefit and identify important prognostic factors, long-term follow-up of the North American Intergroup APL trial is reported. A total of 350 patients with newly diagnosed APL were randomized to either daunorubicin and cytarabine (DA) or ATRA for induction and then either ATRA maintenance or observation following consolidation chemotherapy. The complete remission (CR) rates were not significantly different between the ATRA and DA groups (70% and 73%, respectively). However, the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were longer with ATRA than with DA for induction (69% vs 29% and 69% vs 45%, respectively). Based on both induction and maintenance randomizations, the 5-year DFS was 16% for patients randomized to DA and observation, 47% for DA and ATRA, 55% for ATRA and observation, and 74% for ATRA and ATRA. There was no advantage of either induction regimen among any subgroups when CR alone was considered. However, female sex, classical M3 morphology (vs the microgranular variant [M3v]), and treatment-white blood cell count (WBC) interaction (ATRA/WBC below 2 x 10(9)/L [2000/microL] best, DA/WBC above 2 x 10(9)/L worst) were each significantly associated with improved DFS (P <.05). Treatment with ATRA, WBC below 2 x 10(9)/L, and absence of bleeding disorder were each significantly associated with improved OS. Age more than 15 years, female sex, and treatment-morphology interaction (DA/M3v worst, ATRA best regardless of morphology) were each significantly associated with improved DFS based on maintenance randomization. The improvement in outcome with ATRA in APL was maintained with long-term follow-up.

0 Followers
 · 
66 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite significant improvements in the prognosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia brought about by therapeutic advances, understanding of the epidemiology of acute promyelocytic leukemia remains limited. Earlier reports have suggested that Hispanics may have an increased incidence of acute promyelocytic leukemia, but no systematic analysis of national data has yet been reported. We performed a retrospective cohort study, using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute from 1992-2001 in order to compare leukemia incidence rates as a function of race and ethnicity. We identified 709 cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia and analyzed incidence rates by race and sex. Hispanics were not found to have greater lifetime incidence rates than whites, with an incidence relative rate (IRR) of 0.86 that of whites (P=0.17). The age distribution among Hispanics was significantly different from non-Hispanic whites, with greater incidence rates for children ages 1-19 years (IRR=1.9, P=0.02) and adult ages 20-44 years (IRR=1.6, P=0.004). Blacks had lower lifetime incidence rates than non-Hispanic whites (IRR=0.75, P=0.04), Hispanics (IRR=0.64, P=0.007), and Asians (IRR=0.67, P=0.03). Asians did not differ from non-Hispanic whites in lifetime or age-specific incidence rates. These results indicate that while US Hispanics do not have greater lifetime incidence rates of acute promyelocytic leukemia, blacks have lower incidence rates of acute promyelocytic leukemia than Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites, and Asians.
    European Journal of Cancer Prevention 09/2006; 15(4):367-70. DOI:10.1097/00008469-200608000-00011 · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t(15;17) appears in two phenotypes: AML M3, with abnormal promyelocytes showing heavy granulation and bundles of Auer rods, and AML M3 variant (M3v), with non- or hypogranular cytoplasm and a bilobed nucleus. We investigated the global gene expression profiles of 35 APL patients (19 AML M3, 16 AML M3v) by using high-density DNA-oligonucleotide microarrays. First, an unsupervised approach clearly separated APL samples from other AMLs characterized genetically as t(8;21) (n = 35), inv(16) (n = 35), or t(11q23)/MLL (n = 35) or as having a normal karyotype (n = 50). Second, we found genes with functional relevance for blood coagulation that were differentially expressed between APL and other AMLs. Furthermore, a supervised pairwise comparison between M3 and M3v revealed differential expression of genes that encode for biological functions and pathways such as granulation and maturation of hematologic cells, explaining morphologic and clinical differences. Discrimination between M3 and M3v based on gene signatures showed a median classification accuracy of 90% by use of 10-fold CV and support vector machines. Additional molecular mutations such as FLT3-LM, which were significantly more frequent in M3v than in M3 (P < 0.0001), may partly contribute to the different phenotypes. However, linear regression analysis demonstrated that genes differentially expressed between M3 and M3v did not correlate with FLT3-LM.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 06/2005; 43(2):113-27. DOI:10.1002/gcc.20175 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Targeted therapies for hematological malignancies have come of age since the advent of all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for treating APL and STI571/Imatinib Mesylate/Gleevec for CML. There are good molecular targets for other malignancies and several new drugs are in clinical trials. In this review, we will concentrate on individual abnormalities that exist in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloid leukemias that are targets for small molecule therapies (summarised in Fig. 1). We will cover fusion proteins that are produced as a result of translocations, including BCR-ABL, the FLT3 tyrosine kinase receptor and RAS. Progression of diseases such as MDS to secondary AML occur as a result of changes in the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis and we will review targets in both these areas, including reversal of epigenetic silencing of genes such as p15(INK4B).
    Seminars in Cancer Biology 03/2004; 14(1):41-62. DOI:10.1016/j.semcancer.2003.11.006 · 9.14 Impact Factor

Preview

Similar Publications