Hospital variability of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival

Department of Emergency Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226, USA.
Prehospital Emergency Care (Impact Factor: 1.81). 01/2008; 12(3):339-46. DOI: 10.1080/10903120802101330
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous literature has identified patient and emergency medical services (EMS) system factors that are associated with survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients.
To determine variability in rates of survival to discharge of resuscitated adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients and to identify hospital-related factors associated with survival.
This was a retrospective, observational study of all adult (21 years or older) out-of-hospital Utstein criteria cardiac-etiology arrests treated by Milwaukee County EMS during the period 1995-2005 and surviving to hospital intensive care unit admission. The primary outcome measure was survival to hospital discharge. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare the odds of survival between hospitals, patient factors, and hospital factors.
1,702 patients at eight receiving hospitals were included in the study analyses. Hospital survival rates ranged from 29% to 42%. Patient and case factors associated with increased survival included younger age, male gender, nonwhite race, witnessed arrest in a public location, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), a modest number of defibrillations, and initial cardiac rhythm of ventricular tachycardia. The only hospital characteristic correlated with survival was the number of beds per nurse. Patients admitted to a hospital with a ratio of beds to nurse less than 1.0 were over 1.5 times more likely to survive.
Survival to discharge of resuscitated adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients may vary by receiving hospital. A hospital's ratio of beds to nurse and several patient/case f actors are correlated with survival. Further research is warranted to investigate how this may affect resuscitation care, EMS transport policy, and research design.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is limited information regarding the clinical characteristics and outcome of out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Middle Eastern patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes in patients admitted following OHCA at a single center in the Middle East over a 20-year period.
    International Journal of General Medicine 01/2014; DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S60992
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Reset observer (ReO) is a novel sort of observer consisting of an integrator, and a reset law that resets the output of the integrator depending on a predefined condition over its input and/or output. The introduction of the reset element in the adaptive laws can decrease the overshooting and settling time of the estimation process without sacrificing the rising time. Motivated by the interest in the design of state observers for systems with time-delay, which is an issue that often appears in process control, this paper contributes with the extension of the ReO to the time-delay system framework. The time-independent stability analysis of our proposal is addressed by means of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Simulation results show the potential benefit of the proposed reset observer compared with traditional linear observers.
    01/2011; DOI:10.1109/CDC.2011.6160206
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sex differences have not been well defined for patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We aimed to determine sex differences in mortality and Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scores at discharge among those receiving TH. This retrospective cohort study used data abstracted from an "ICE alert" database, an institutional protocol expediting mild TH for postarrest patients. Quality assurance variables (such as age, time to TH, CPC scores, and mortality) were reviewed and compared by sex. χ(2) Test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used. Stepwise logistic regression was used to assess the association between mortality and sex, while controlling for patient characteristics and clinical presentation of cardiac arrest. Three hundred thirty subjects were analyzed, 198 males and 132 females. Subjects' mean age (SD) was 61.7 years (15.0); there was no significant sex difference in age. There were no statistically significant sex differences in history of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal disease, type 1 and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, or those previously healthy. Obesity (body mass index >35 kg/m(2)) was more likely in females (37, 28.0%) than males (35, 17.7%); P = .03. Females (64, 49.6%) were more likely than males (71, 36.8%) to have shock; P = .02. There was no difference in arrest to initiating hypothermia, but there was a significant difference in time to target temperature (in median minutes, interquartile range): male (440, 270) vs female (310, 270), P = .003. There was no statistical difference in CPC at discharge. Crude mortality was not different between sexes: male, 67.7%; female, 70.5%; P = .594. However, after controlling for differences in age, obesity, shock, and other variables, females were less likely to die (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.92; P = .03) than males. There is no statistically significant difference in CPC or crude mortality outcomes between sexes. After adjusting for confounders, females were 54% less likely to die than males.
    The American journal of emergency medicine 02/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2014.02.004 · 1.15 Impact Factor