Primary care physicians' willingness to offer a new genetic test to tailor smoking treatment, according to test characteristics.
ABSTRACT Emerging pharmacogenetics research may improve clinical outcomes for common complex conditions typically treated in primary care settings. Physicians' willingness to offer genetically-tailored treatments to their patients will be critical to realizing this potential. According to recent research, it is likely that genotypes used to tailor smoking will have pleiotropic associations with other addictions and diseases, and may have different frequencies across populations. These additional features may pose an additional barrier to adoption. To assess physicians' willingness to offer a new test to individually tailor smoking treatment according to specific test characteristics, we conducted a national mailed survey of 2,000 U.S. primary care physicians (response rate: 62.3%). Physicians responded to a baseline scenario describing a new test to tailor smoking treatment, and three additional scenarios describing specific test characteristics based on published research; there was random assignment to one of two survey conditions in which the test was described as a genetic or non-genetic test. Our findings indicate physicians' self-reported likelihood (0-100 scale) that they would offer a new test to tailor smoking cessation treatment ranged from 69%-78% across all scenarios. Relative to baseline scenario responses, physicians were significantly less likely to offer the test when informed that the same genotypes assessed for treatment tailoring: (1) may also identify individuals predisposed to become addicted to nicotine (p<.001), (2) differ in frequency by race (p<.004), and (3) may have associations with other conditions (e.g., alcohol and cocaine addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD and Tourette Syndrome) (p<.01). Describing a new test to individually tailor smoking treatment as a "genetic" versus non-genetic test significantly reduced physicians' likelihood of offering the test across all scenarios, regardless of specific test characteristics (p<.0007). Effective education of primary care physicians will be critical to successful integration of promising new pharmacogenetic treatment strategies for smoking.
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ABSTRACT: It is anticipated that as the range of drugs for which pharmacogenetic testing becomes available expands, primary care physicians (PCPs) will become major users of these tests. To assess their training, familiarity, and attitudes toward pharmacogenetic testing in order to identify barriers to uptake that may be addressed at this early stage of test use, we conducted a national survey of a sample of PCPs. Respondents were mostly white (79%), based primarily in community-based primary care (81%) and almost evenly divided between family medicine and internal medicine. The majority of respondents had heard of PGx testing and anticipated that these tests are or would soon become a valuable tool to inform drug response. However, only a minority of respondents (13%) indicated they felt comfortable ordering PGx tests and almost a quarter reported not having any education about pharmacogenetics. Our results indicate that primary care practitioners envision a major role for themselves in the delivery of PGx testing but recognize their lack of adequate knowledge and experience about these tests. Development of effective tools for guiding PCPs in the use of PGx tests should be a high priority.Clinical Genetics 06/2012; 82(4):388-94. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose:Gaucher disease carrier screening is controversial in the medical community. The goal of this study was to explore current Gaucher disease carrier screening practices of prenatal healthcare providers.Methods:Prenatal healthcare providers were invited by email to complete an electronic-based survey.Results:A total of 1,454 prenatal healthcare providers, including 209 genetic counselors, 450 midwives, and 795 physicians, completed the study. The majority of genetic counselors (n = 208/209, >99%), physicians (n = 415/450, 92%), and midwives (n = 634/795, 80%) currently offer Jewish ancestry disease carrier screening to couples in whom one or both partners are Jewish. Of providers who offer Jewish ancestry disease screening, the majority of genetic counselors (n = 199/208, 96%) and physicians (n = 352/415, 85%) always or sometimes offer Gaucher disease screening whereas the majority of midwives (n = 357/634, 56%) never offer Gaucher disease screening.Conclusion:This study presents the first report of Gaucher disease carrier screening practices of the prenatal healthcare providers in North America. Our results indicate that Gaucher disease carrier screening is being offered at a high rate within the scope of Jewish ancestry-based carrier screening. This may highlight a need to move away from the debate as to whether Gaucher disease carrier screening should be offered and, instead, focus on how best to provide Gaucher disease carrier screening services.Genet Med 2012:14(10):844-851.Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 05/2012; 14(10):844-51. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess potential barriers to clinical integration of tailored smoking cessation treatment among African American and white smokers in the USA. A total of 392 smokers (203 white and 189 African American) identified within a national random digit dial survey (response rate: 40.1%; 81.2% among households with whom we were able to make contact) of 1200 African Americans and 1200 white Americans. Respondents answered several closed-ended survey items addressing beliefs regarding what influences a smoker's ability to quit, past pharmacotherapy use, and their willingness to undergo genetic assessment in order to be matched to optimal treatment, among other items. In this first nationally representative survey of US smokers, 77% of respondents expressed willingness to undergo genetic testing in order to be matched to optimal pharmacotherapy, yet only 18% had ever used pharmacotherapy in a previous quit attempt. Smokers who rated 'medications and counseling' as very important in quitting were significantly more likely to endorse genetic testing (odds ratio [OR]: 8.94; 95% CI: 1.86-43.06), while those rating 'having God's help' as very important were significantly less likely to express willingness to undergo testing (OR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02-0.71). African American smokers were more likely than white smokers to express willingness to undergo genetic testing (OR: 3.80; 95% CI: 1.09-13.22), despite lower rates of previous pharmacotherapy use. While smokers reported high rates of willingness to undergo genetic testing to be matched to optimal treatment, these results suggest that smokers' willingness to use medications indicated by genetic test results may prove a significant barrier to realizing the promise of tailored smoking cessation treatment. The role of spirituality in smokers' willingness to use medication is an area for further study.Personalized Medicine 11/2013; 10(8). · 1.51 Impact Factor