Sulfotransferase 2B1b in human breast: Differences in subcellular localization in African American and Caucasian women

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.63). 07/2008; 111(3-5):171-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2008.05.006
Source: PubMed


Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among American women; however, the development of post-menopausal BC is significantly lower in African Americans as compared to Caucasians. Hormonal stimulation is important in BC development and differences in the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into estrogens may be involved in the lower incidence of post-menopausal BC in African American women. DHEA sulfation by sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) is important in regulating the conversion of DHEA into estrogens in tissues. SULT2B1b is localized in both cytosol and nuclei of some tissues including cancerous and associated-normal breast tissue. Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate the total expression and subcellular localization of SULT2B1b in African American and Caucasian breast tissues. Cell fractionation, immunoblot analysis and sulfation assays were used to characterize the subcellular expression and activity of SULT2B1b in BC tissues and T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of SULT2B1b showed that African Americans had a significantly greater amount of SULT2B1b in epithelial cells of associated-normal breast tissue as compared to Caucasians. Also, more SULT2B1b in African American associated-normal breast epithelial cells was localized in the nuclei than in Caucasians. Equivalent levels of SULT2B1b were detected in breast adenocarcinoma tissues from both African American and Caucasian women. Nuclei isolation and immunoblot analysis of both BC tissue and human T-47D breast adenocarcinoma cells demonstrated that SULT2B1b is present in nuclei and cytoplasm.

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Available from: Charles N Falany, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "In the present study, we demonstrated that the hydroxysterol sulfotransferase, SULT2B1b, promoted proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Recently, altered expression of SULT2B1b has been demonstrated in hormone-dependent cancers, such as in the breast and prostate [10], [12], [23], [24]. However, the expression and function of SULT2B1b in liver tumors has not been addressed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) is highly selective for the addition of sulfate groups to 3β-hydroxysteroids. Although previous reports have suggested that SULT2B1b is correlated with cell proliferation of hepatocytes, the relationship between SULT2B1b and the malignant phenotype of hepatocarcinoma cells was not clear. In the present study, we found that SULT2B1 was comparatively higher in the human hepatocarcinoma tumorous tissues than their adjacent tissues. Besides, SULT2B1b overexpression promoted the growth of the mouse hepatocarcinoma cell line Hepa1-6, while Lentivirus-mediated SULT2B1b interference inhibited growth as assessed by the CCK-8 assay. Likewise, inhibition of SULT2B1b expression induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in Hepa1-6 cells by upregulating the expression of FAS, downregulating the expression of cyclinB1, BCL2 and MYC in vitro and in vivo at both the transcript and protein levels. Knock-down of SULT2B1b expression significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mouse xenografts. Moreover, proliferation rates and SULT2B1b expression were highly correlated in the human hepatocarcinoma cell lines Huh-7, Hep3B, SMMC-7721 and BEL-7402 cells. Knock-down of SULT2B1b inhibited cell growth and cyclinB1 levels in human hepatocarcinoma cells and suppressed xenograft growth in vivo. In conclusion, SULT2B1b expression promotes proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo, which may contribute to the progression of HCC.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e60853. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060853 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "SULT2B1b shows both cytosolic and nuclear expression in breast and placental cell types, although the ratio of cytosolic to nuclear expression varies in these cells (He et al., 2004; He et al., 2005; Falany et al., 2006; Dumas et al., 2008). SULT2B1b protein is found almost exclusively in the nuclei of term placenta, while nuclear expression varies significantly in normal breast and breast cancer specimens (Dumas et al., 2008). In other tissues, such as brain and prostate, SULT2B1b is expressed in the cytosol and is apparently not localized in the nuclei (He et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Human SULT2B1b is distinct from other SULT isoforms due to the presence of unique amino (N)- and carboxy (C)-terminal peptides. Using site-directed mutagenesis, it was determined that phosphorylation of Ser348 was associated with nuclear localization. To investigate the effects of this phosphorylation of Ser348 on activity and cellular localization, an in silico molecular mimic was generated by mutating Ser348 to an Asp. The Asp residue mimics the shape and charge of a phospho-Ser and homology models of SULT2B1b-phospho-S348 and SULT2B1b-S348D suggest a similar significant structural rearrangement in the C-terminal peptide. To evaluate the functional consequences of this post-translational modification and predicted rearrangement, 6His-SULT2B1b-S348D was synthesized, expressed, purified and characterized. The 6His-SULT2B1b-S348D has a specific activity for DHEA sulfation ten-fold higher than recombinant 6His-SULT2B1b (209.6 and 21.8pmolmin(-1)mg(-1), respectively). Similar to native SULT2B1b, gel filtration chromatography showed SULT2B1b-S348D was enzymatically active as a homodimer. Stability assays comparing SULT2B1b and SUL2B1b-S348 demonstrated that SULT2B1b is 60% less thermostable than SULT2B1b-348D. The increased stability and sulfation activity allowed for better characterization of the sulfation kinetics for putative substrates as well as the determination of dissociation constants that were difficult to obtain with wild-type (WT) 6His-SULT2B1b. The K(D)s for DHEA and PAPS binding to 6His-SULT2B1b-S348D were 650±7nM and 265±4nM, respectively, whereas K(D)s for binding of substrates to the WT enzyme could not be determined. Characterization of the molecular mimic SULT2B1b-S348D provides a better understanding for the role of the unique structure of SULT2B1b and its effect on sulfation activity, and has allowed for improved kinetic characterization of the SULT2B1b enzyme.
    The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology 08/2011; 127(3-5):315-23. DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2011.07.010 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    • "LT2B1b , which forms only the 3 - sulfate , is widely expressed in tissues and has been reported to be regulated by LXR in human keratinocytes ( Jiang et al . , 2005 ) . The induction of SULT2B1b by LXR activation suggests a feedback mech - anism by which high levels of 24 - OHChol could activate LXR and induce SULT2B1b in tissues such as breast ( Dumas et al . , 2008 ) , result - ing in the increased synthesis of inhibitory 24 - OHChol - 3 - sulfate . STS would then serve to hydrolyze the inhibitory 3 - sulfates , allowing regen - eration of 24 - OHChol . In support of the LXR - modulating potential of SULT2B1b - catalyzed oxysterol sulfation , the transactivation of an LXR␣ reporter gene in human e"
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    ABSTRACT: 24-Hydroxycholesterol (24-OHChol) is a major cholesterol metabolite and the form in which cholesterol is secreted from the brain. 24-OHChol is transported by apolipoprotein E to the liver and converted into bile acids or excreted. In both brain and liver, 24-OHChol is a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist and has an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. 24-OHChol sulfation was examined to understand its role in 24-OHChol metabolism and its effect on LXR activation. 24-OHChol was conjugated by three isoforms of human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT). SULT2A1 and SULT1E1 sulfated both the 3- and 24-hydroxyls to form the 24-OHChol-3, 24-disulfate. SULT2B1b formed only 24-OHChol-3-sulfate. The 3-sulfate as a monosulfate or as the disulfate was hydrolyzed by human placental steroid sulfatase, whereas the 24-sulfate was resistant. At physiological 24-OHChol concentrations, SULT2A1 formed the 3-monosulfate and the 3, 24-disulfate as a result of a high affinity for sulfation of the 3-OH in 24-OHChol-24-sulfate. Molecular docking simulations indicate that 24-OHChol-24-sulfate binds in an active configuration in the SULT2A1 substrate binding site with high affinity only when the SULT2A1 homodimer structure was used. 24-OHChol is an LXR activator. In contrast, the 24-OHChol monosulfates were not LXR agonists in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer coactivator recruitment assay. However, both the 24-OHChol-3-sulfate and 24-sulfate were antagonists of LXR activation by N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trif-luoro-1-hydroxy-1-(trifluoromethyl)ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide (T0901317) with an IC(50) of 0.15 and 0.31 muM, respectively. Inhibition of LXR activation by the 24-OHChol monosulfates at low nanomolar concentrations indicates that sulfation has a role in LXR regulation by oxysterols.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 08/2009; 37(10):2069-78. DOI:10.1124/dmd.108.025759 · 3.25 Impact Factor
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