Auditory–Motor Interaction Revealed by fMRI: Speech, Music, and Working Memory in Area Spt

University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 4.09). 08/2003; 15(5):673-82. DOI: 10.1162/089892903322307393
Source: PubMed


The concept of auditory-motor interaction pervades speech science research, yet the cortical systems supporting this interface have not been elucidated. Drawing on experimental designs used in recent work in sensory-motor integration in the cortical visual system, we used fMRI in an effort to identify human auditory regions with both sensory and motor response properties, analogous to single-unit responses in known visuomotor integration areas. The sensory phase of the task involved listening to speech (nonsense sentences) or music (novel piano melodies); the "motor" phase of the task involved covert rehearsal/humming of the auditory stimuli. A small set of areas in the superior temporal and temporal-parietal cortex responded both during the listening phase and the rehearsal/humming phase. A left lateralized region in the posterior Sylvian fissure at the parietal-temporal boundary, area Spt, showed particularly robust responses to both phases of the task. Frontal areas also showed combined auditory + rehearsal responsivity consistent with the claim that the posterior activations are part of a larger auditory-motor integration circuit. We hypothesize that this circuit plays an important role in speech development as part of the network that enables acoustic-phonetic input to guide the acquisition of language-specific articulatory-phonetic gestures; this circuit may play a role in analogous musical abilities. In the adult, this system continues to support aspects of speech production, and, we suggest, supports verbal working memory.

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    • "According to a prominent hypothesis, posterior parts of the superior temporal plane (STP) support general action-to-perception functions during audiomotor tasks (Warren et al., 2005; Hickok and Poeppel, 2007; Zatorre et al., 2007; Rauschecker and Scott, 2009; Rauschecker, 2010). Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that these areas, particularly the planum temporale (PT), are activated during tasks requiring overt sound localization, vocalization, and playing of a musical instrument (Buchsbaum et al., 2001; Wise et al., 2001; Hickok et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2006, 2008a,b; Baumann et al., 2007). These findings support the role of posterior STP in guiding motor behavior based on auditory information. "
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    ABSTRACT: The neuroanatomical pathways interconnecting auditory and motor cortices play a key role in current models of human auditory cortex (AC). Evidently, auditory-motor interaction is important in speech and music production, but the significance of these cortical pathways in other auditory processing is not well known. We investigated the general effects of motor responding on AC activations to sounds during auditory and visual tasks (motor regions were not imaged). During all task blocks, subjects detected targets in the designated modality, reported the relative number of targets at the end of the block, and ignored the stimuli presented in the opposite modality. In each block, they were also instructed to respond to targets either using a precision grip, power grip, or to give no overt target responses. We found that motor responding strongly modulated AC activations. First, during both visual and auditory tasks, activations in widespread regions of AC decreased when subjects made precision and power grip responses to targets. Second, activations in AC were modulated by grip type during the auditory but not during the visual task. Further, the motor effects were distinct from the present strong attention-related modulations in AC. These results are consistent with the idea that operations in AC are shaped by its connections with motor cortical regions.
    Frontiers in Neuroscience 10/2015; 9. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2015.00378 · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    • "speech signals to frontal lobe articulatory networks , involved in speech segment and sequence processing ( Hickok and Poeppel , 2007 ) . Notably , this auditory - motor circuit is not limited to speech processing , but is also recruited in perception and reproduction ( via humming ) of musical sequences including both tonal and rhythmic aspects ( Hickok et al . , 2003 ) . The similarity between music and phonology in terms of sensory - motor integration provides further comparative options . BA 44 which is often regarded as a core region of narrow - sense linguistic syntax computing complex hierarchical structure ( Friederici , 2012 ) is also a part of sensory - motor integration circuit for speech p"
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    ABSTRACT: It is often claimed that music and language share a process of hierarchical structure building, a mental "syntax." Although several lines of research point to commonalities, and possibly a shared syntactic component, differences between "language syntax" and "music syntax" can also be found at several levels: conveyed meaning, and the atoms of combination, for example. To bring music and language closer to one another, some researchers have suggested a comparison between music and phonology ("phonological syntax"), but here too, one quickly arrives at a situation of intriguing similarities and obvious differences. In this paper, we suggest that a fruitful comparison between the two domains could benefit from taking the grammar of action into account. In particular, we suggest that what is called "syntax" can be investigated in terms of goal of action, action planning, motor control, and sensory-motor integration. At this level of comparison, we suggest that some of the differences between language and music could be explained in terms of different goals reflected in the hierarchical structures of action planning: the hierarchical structures of music arise to achieve goals with a strong relation to the affective-gestural system encoding tension-relaxation patterns as well as socio-intentional system, whereas hierarchical structures in language are embedded in a conceptual system that gives rise to compositional meaning. Similarities between music and language are most clear in the way several hierarchical plans for executing action are processed in time and sequentially integrated to achieve various goals.
    Frontiers in Psychology 07/2015; 6:942. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00942 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "A relatively coherent and convergent story is starting to emerge from functional imaging (Buchsbaum et al., 2001; Hickok et al., 2003; Wise et al., 2001), cytoarchitectonics (Galaburda and Sanides, 1980; Galaburda, 1982), lesion-symptom mapping (present study, Baldo et al., 2011; Fridriksson et al., 2010; etc.), connectivity (Isenberg et al., 2012), direct cortical stimulation (Anderson et al., 1999), and computational modeling (Hickok, 2012a) suggesting that Spt is a hub in an auditory–motor network for speech motor control (Hickok, 2012a, 2012b; Hickok et al., 2011). Functional imaging work has provided information (i) on the precise distribution of a circuit with auditory–motor response properties (Buchsbaum et al., 2001; Hickok et al., 2003; Wise et al., 2001); (ii) that within that network, Spt is comprised of interdigitated units (voxels) differentially tuned to auditory versus motor components of speech repetition (Hickok et al., 2009) similar to what is found in primate visuomotor regions in parietal cortex (Sakata et al., 1995); (iii) that Spt is preferentially tuned to vocal tract actions (Pa and Hickok, 2008); and (iv) that it activates more strongly during demanding feedback control situations (altered feedback) (Tourville et al., 2008). Cytoarchitectonically, area Spt falls within area Tpt in the planum temporale/parietal operculum region which is not cellularly characteristic of nearby auditory cortex (Galaburda and Sanides, 1980), but rather shares features with Broca's area (Galaburda, 1982). "
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    ABSTRACT: For more than a century, speech repetition has been used as an assay for gauging the integrity of the auditory-motor pathway in aphasia, thought classically to involve a linkage between Wernicke's area and Broca's area via the arcuate fasciculus. During the last decade, evidence primarily from functional imaging in healthy individuals has refined this picture both computationally and anatomically, suggesting the existence of a cortical hub located at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt) that functions to integrate auditory and motor speech networks for both repetition and spontaneous speech production. While functional imaging research can pinpoint the regions activated in repetition/auditory-motor integration, lesion-based studies are needed to infer causal involvement. Previous lesion studies of repetition have yielded mixed results with respect to Spt's critical involvement in speech repetition. The present study used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to investigate the neuroanatomy of repetition of both real words and non-words in a sample of 47 patients with focal left hemisphere brain damage. VLSMs identified a large voxel cluster spanning gray and white matter in the left temporal-parietal junction, including area Spt, where damage was significantly related to poor non-word repetition. Repetition of real words implicated a very similar dorsal network including area Spt. Cortical regions including Spt were implicated in repetition performance even when white matter damage was factored out. In addition, removing variance associated with speech perception abilities did not alter the overall lesion pattern for either task. Together with past functional imaging work, our results suggest that area Spt is integral in both word and non-word repetition, that its contribution is above and beyond that made by white matter pathways, and is not driven by perceptual processes alone. These findings are highly consistent with the claim that Spt is an area of sensory-motor translation in speech processing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuropsychologia 03/2015; 71. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.03.012 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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