Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome in a representative sample of depressed inpatients - Findings from the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project
ABSTRACT Depression is a common and often difficult-to-treat clinical condition with a high rate of patients showing insufficient treatment response and persistence of symptoms. We report the characteristics of a representative sample of depressed inpatients participating in the Munich Antidepressant Response Signature (MARS) project. Eight hundred and forty-two inpatients admitted to a psychiatric hospital for treatment of a major depressive episode, recurrent or bipolar depression were thoroughly characterized with respect to demographic factors, clinical history, and the degree of HPA-axis dysregulation evaluated by means of combined dex/CRH tests, and the predictive value of these factors for treatment outcome is investigated. 80.8% of patients responded to treatment (i.e., improvement in symptom severity of at least 50%) and 57.9% reached remission (i.e., near absence of residual depressive symptoms) at discharge after a mean treatment period of 11.8 weeks. Regression analysis identified early partial response (within 2 weeks) as the most important positive predictor for achieving remission. Previous ineffective treatment trials in the current episode and presence of a migration background are potent negative predictors for treatment outcome. In addition, remitters were characterized by a more pronounced normalization of an initially dysregulated HPA-axis. We could show that a large majority of inpatients suffering from depression benefits from antidepressant treatment during hospitalization. However, a considerable number of patients failed to achieve remission. We demonstrated that this subgroup can be characterized by a set of demographic, clinical and neuroendocrine variables allowing to predict unfavorable outcome at an early stage of treatment.
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ABSTRACT: FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is an Hsp90 co-chaperone and regulator of the glucocorticoid receptor, and consequently of stress physiology. Clinical studies suggest a genetic link between FKBP51 and antidepressant response in mood disorders; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of FKBP51 in the actions of antidepressants, with a particular focus on pathways of autophagy.PLoS Medicine 11/2014; 11(11):e1001755. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001755 · 14.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Increased cortisol levels and genetic polymorphisms have been related to both major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment outcome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between circadian salivary cortisol levels, cortisol suppression by dexamethasone and genetic polymorphisms in some HPA axis-related genes to the response to placebo and fluoxetine in depressed patients.Methods The diagnosis and severity of depression were performed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) and Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17), respectively. Euthyroid patients were treated with placebo (one week) followed by fluoxetine (20 mg) (two months). Severity of depression was re-evaluated after placebo, three weeks and two months of fluoxetine treatments. Placebo response was defined as HAM-D17 score reductions of at least 25% and to¿<¿15. Early response and response were reductions of at least 50% after three weeks and two months, and remission with¿¿¿7 after two months. Plasma TSH, free-T4, circadian salivary cortisol levels and cortisol suppression by dexamethasone were evaluated. Seven genetic polymorphisms located in the Corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-receptor-1 (rs242939, rs242941, rs1876828), Corticotrophin-releasing-hormone-receptor-2 (rs2270007), Glucocorticoid-receptor (rs41423247), FK506-binding-protein-5 (rs1360780), and Arginine-vasopressin (rs3729965) genes were determined. Association analyses between response to placebo/fluoxetine and polymorphism were performed by chi-square or Fisher exact test. Cortisol levels were compared by t-test, ANOVA and the general linear model for repeated measures.Results208 depressed patients were recruited, 187 of whom were euthyroid. Placebo responders, fluoxetine responders and remitters exhibited significantly lower circadian cortisol levels than those who did not respond (p-values of 0.014, 0.008 and 0.021 respectively). Patients who abandoned treatment before the third week also exhibited a trend to low cortisol levels (p¿=¿0.057). The polymorphisms rs242939 (CRHR1) and rs2270007 (CRHR2) were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Only the rs242939 polymorphism (CRHR1) exhibited association with early response (three weeks) to fluoxetine (p-value¿=¿0.043). No other association between outcomes and polymorphisms was observed.Conclusions These results support the clinical relevance of low salivary cortisol levels as a predictor of antidepressant response, either to placebo or to fluoxetine. Only one polymorphism in the CRHR1 gene was associated with the early response. Other factors may be involved in antidepressant response, although further studies are needed to identify them.BMC Psychiatry 08/2014; 14(1):220. DOI:10.1186/s12888-014-0220-0 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current studies suggest that an early improvement of depressive symptoms and the reduction of prefrontal theta cordance value predict the subsequent response to antidepressants. The aim of our study was (1) to compare the predictive abilities of early clinical improvement defined as ≥20 % reduction in Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score at week 1 and 2, and the decrease of prefrontal theta cordance at week 1 in resistant depressive patients and (2) to assess whether the combination of individual predictors yields more robust predictive power than either predictor alone. Eighty-seven subjects were treated (≥4 weeks) with various antidepressants chosen according to the judgment of attending psychiatrists. Areas under curve (AUC) were calculated to compare predictive effect of defined single predictors (≥20 % reduction in MADRS total score at week 1 and 2, and the decrease of cordance at week 1) and combined prediction models. AUCs of all three predictors were not statistically different (pair-wise comparison). The model combining all predictors yielded an AUC value 0.91 that was significantly higher than AUCs of each individual predictor. The results indicate that the combined predictor model may be a useful and clinically meaningful tool for the prediction of antidepressant response in patients with resistant depression.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 05/2014; 265(1). DOI:10.1007/s00406-014-0506-8 · 3.36 Impact Factor