Dependence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling on epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.
ABSTRACT Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma ligands have recently been shown to induce activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which in turn phosphorylate PPARs, thereby affecting transcriptional activity. However, the mechanism for PPAR ligand-dependent MAPK activation is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that various PPARalpha (nafenopin) and gamma (ciglitazone and troglitazone) agonists rapidly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and/or p38 phosphorylation in rat liver epithelial cells (GN4). The selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors, PD153035 and ZD1839 (Iressa), abolished PPARalpha and gamma agonist-dependent Erk activation. Consistent with this, PPAR agonists increased tyrosine autophosphorylation of the EGFR as well as phosphorylation at a putative Src-specific site, Tyr845. Experiments with the Src inhibitor, PP2, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine revealed critical roles for Src and reactive oxygen species as upstream mediators of EGFR transactivation in response to PPAR ligands. Moreover, PPARalpha and gamma ligands increased Src autophosphorylation as well as kinase activity. EGFR phosphorylation, in turn, led to Ras-dependent Erk activation. In contrast, p38 activation by PPARalpha and gamma ligands occurred independently of Src, oxidative stress, the EGFR, and Ras. Interestingly, PPARalpha and gamma agonists caused rapid activation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase or Pyk2; Pyk2 as well as p38 phosphorylation was reduced by intracellular Ca2+ chelation without an observable effect on EGFR and Erk activation, suggesting a possible role for Pyk2 as an upstream activator of p38. In summary, PPARalpha and gamma ligands activate two distinct signaling cascades in GN4 cells leading to MAPK activation.
Article: The PPAR Gamma Agonist Troglitazone Regulates Erk 1/2 Phosphorylation via a PPARγ-Independent, MEK-Dependent Pathway in Human Prostate Cancer Cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) dramatically reduce the growth of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. To determine whether the antitumor effects of TZDs were due in part to changes in the MEK/Erk signaling pathway, we examined the regulation of Erk phosphorylation by the TZD troglitazone within the PC-3 and C4-2 human prostate cancer cell lines. Western blot analysis revealed troglitazone-induced phosphorylation of Erk in both PC-3 and C4-2 cells. Troglitazone-induced increases in Erk phosphorylation were suppressed by the MEK inhibitor U0126 but not by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Pretreatment with U0126 did not alter the ability of troglitazone to regulate expression of two proteins that control cell cycle, p21, and c-Myc. Troglitazone was also still effective at reducing PC-3 proliferation in the presence of U0126. Therefore, our data suggest that troglitazone-induced Erk phosphorylation does not significantly contribute to the antiproliferative effect of troglitazone.PPAR Research 01/2012; 2012:929052. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that is important in many physiological and pathological processes, such as lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, cell proliferation, and carcinogenesis. Several studies have shown that PPARγ plays an important role in gastric mucosal injury due to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). As H. pylori infection is the main etiologic factor in chronic gastritis and gastric cancer, understanding of the potential roles of PPARγ in H. pylori infection may lead to the development of a therapeutic target. In this paper, the authors discuss the current knowledge on the role of PPARγ in H. pylori infection and its related gastric carcinogenesis.PPAR Research 01/2012; 2012:687570. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine direct vascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists using isolated mouse aortas and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). The PPARα agonists GW7647, WY14643, and gemfibrozil acutely relaxed aortas held under isometric tension and dilated pressurized MCAs with the following order of potency: GW7647≫WY14643>gemfibrozil. Responses were endothelium-independent, and the use of PPARα deficient mice demonstrated that responses were also PPARα-independent. Pretreating arteries with high extracellular K(+) attenuated PPARα agonist-mediated relaxations in the aorta, but not in the MCA. In the aorta, the ATP sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel blocker glibenclamide also impaired relaxations whereas the other K(+) channel inhibitors, 4-aminopyridine and Iberiotoxin, had no effect. In aortas, GW7647 and WY14643 elevated cGMP levels by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and inhibition of sGC with ODQ blunted relaxations to PPARα agonists. In the MCA, dilations were inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and also by ODQ. Our results demonstrated acute, nonreceptor-mediated relaxant effects of PPARα agonists on smooth muscle of mouse arteries. Responses to PPARα agonists in the aorta involved K(ATP) channels and sGC, whereas in the MCA the PKC and sGC pathways also appeared to contribute to the response.PPAR Research 01/2012; 2012:302495. · 2.73 Impact Factor