To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an extended-release (ER) formulation of paliperidone in patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia, in the dosage range of 3 to 15 mg daily.
A pooled analysis of 3 similarly designed 6-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled studies in 1326 patients with acute schizophrenia (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] total score of 70-120) was performed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 mg daily of paliperidone ER or placebo. Efficacy and safety assessments were performed. The primary endpoint was change in PANSS total score from baseline to endpoint.
PANSS total, PANSS subscale factor, and Personal and Social Performance scale scores significantly improved at endpoint for all doses of paliperidone ER relative to placebo (p <or= .001). A significantly greater proportion of paliperidone ER-treated patients at all doses achieved a clinical response compared with placebo (p <or= .001). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 66% to 77% of patients in the paliperidone ER groups and 66% of patients in the placebo group; serious TEAEs occurred in 6% of patients who received placebo and 5% to 6% of paliperidone ER-treated patients. Regardless of treatment group, median Simpson-Angus Rating Scale global, Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale total, and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale scores were 0 at both baseline and endpoint. There were no clinically relevant differences in measures of body weight gain, glucose handling, lipid metabolism, or proportion of patients with abnormal corrected QT intervals on electrocardiography and no important differences between the proportion of patients who received paliperidone ER or placebo who reported potentially glucose- or prolactin-related events.
Paliperidone ER given once daily for 6 weeks appears to be a safe, well-tolerated, and effective treatment for patients with acute schizophrenia.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to explore the efficacy and tolerability of oral paliperidone extended release (ER) in a sample of patients who were switched to flexible doses within the crucial first 5 years after receiving a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Patients were recruited from 23 countries. Adults with nonacute but symptomatic schizophrenia, previously unsuccessfully treated with other oral antipsychotics, were transitioned to paliperidone ER (3-12 mg/day) and prospectively treated for up to 6 months. The primary efficacy outcome for patients switching for the main reason of lack of efficacy with their previous antipsychotic was at least 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores. For patients switching for other main reasons, such as lack of tolerability, compliance or 'other', the primary outcome was non-inferiority in efficacy compared with the previous oral antipsychotic.
For patients switching for the main reason of lack of efficacy, 63.1% achieved an improvement of at least 20% in PANSS total scores from baseline to endpoint. For each reason for switching other than lack of efficacy, efficacy maintenance after switching to paliperidone ER was confirmed. Statistically significant improvement in patient functioning from baseline to endpoint, as assessed by the Personal and Social Performance scale, was observed (p < 0.0001). Treatment satisfaction with prior antipsychotic treatment at baseline was rated 'good' to 'very good' by 16.8% of patients, and at endpoint by 66.0% of patients treated with paliperidone ER. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated, with frequently reported treatment-emergent adverse events being insomnia, anxiety and somnolence.
Flexibly dosed paliperidone ER was associated with clinically relevant symptomatic and functional improvement in recently diagnosed patients with non-acute schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with other oral antipsychotics.
"Many scales can be used to assess affective symptoms, such as the Hamilton anxiety rating scale,38,39 Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale,40 PANSS subscale items, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia.41 Clinical data regarding the effect of treatment on affective symptoms are sparse compared with the available data on positive symptoms. However, some recent trials have demonstrated a positive correlation between treatment with SGAs and improved affective symptoms.42–44 In a study of 60 outpatients with chronic schizophrenia, there was no difference between amisulpride and olanzapine with regard to positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Prompt administration of antipsychotic treatment that is adhered to is essential for the optimal treatment of schizophrenia. Many patients have benefited from the advent of second-generation antipsychotics, which can offer good symptomatic control with reduced incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms, although with higher risk of metabolic side effects. It is unsurprising that accounts as to whether first- and second-generation antipsychotics differ in their efficacy vary, since treatment effectiveness is a broad notion and difficult to define.
Numerous factors may be used to gauge treatment effectiveness and, while it has largely been defined in terms of improvements in four domains (symptoms of disease, treatment burden, disease burden, and health and wellness), the real-world clinical utility of this consensus is unclear. Therefore, this article aims to provide a framework that can aid psychiatrists in making assessments about treatment effectiveness.
Methods and results
A panel of 12 psychiatrists and psychopharmacologists convened to develop and propose an accessible and globally-applicable framework for assessing the effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments in patients with schizophrenia. Following presentation of a preliminary proposal to a wider group of psychiatrists from across Europe, it was refined into a framework comprising five domains: symptomatic remission and retention of treatment; affective symptoms; cognitive functioning; treatment satisfaction; and personal and social functioning – each of which is discussed in this article.
This article provides a framework that can aid psychiatrists in making assessments about treatment effectiveness. It is anticipated that the framework outlined here may contribute to improving clinical practice through the promotion of a patient-centered approach to the assessment of treatment effectiveness, using five specified domains, in patients with schizophrenia.
"The efficacy and tolerability of the approved dose range of paliperidone ER (3–12 mg/day) was established in three multi-centre, placebo-controlled, double-blind, fixed-dose, 6-week pivotal trials in patients with acute symptoms of schizophrenia [48-51]. All tested doses of paliperidone ER separated from placebo from day 4 on the primary efficacy endpoint (a decrease in PANSS total scores) [28,48-50]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many patients with schizophrenia receive long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication. Switching of antipsychotic medication due to lack of efficacy, tolerability issues, and partial/non-adherence is common. Despite this, consensus strategies for switching between antipsychotics are lacking. This manuscript provides practical recommendations for switching antipsychotic medication to ensure optimal management of patients with schizophrenia, with a particular focus on paliperidone extended release (ER). The authors drew on their clinical experience supported by detailed discussion of literature describing antipsychotic switching techniques and strategies and findings from paliperidone ER clinical trials. Antipsychotic switching strategies should be individualized and take into consideration the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of the pre- and post-switch medication. The use of temporary concomitant medications may be appropriate in some scenarios. Abrupt withdrawal of pre-switch medication may be appropriate in some instances but carries a greater risk of rebound and withdrawal symptoms than other strategies. Cross-tapering is the method most widely used in clinical practice. Paliperidone ER can be initiated without dose titration. The EU SmPC recommended dose of paliperidone ER is 6 mg/day; but doses should be individualized within the approved range of 3-12 mg/day. Higher doses may be required due to insufficient efficacy of the previous antipsychotic or in patients with acute symptoms. Recently diagnosed patients, those with renal impairment, or patients who have previously experienced tolerability issues with other antipsychotics may require lower doses. When switching from risperidone, higher doses of paliperidone ER may be required compared with risperidone. When switching from antipsychotics that have sedative and/or significant anticholinergic activity, the pre-switch antipsychotic should be tapered off gradually. Antipsychotics with less sedating and little anticholinergic activity can be tapered off over a shorter period. Temporary concomitant sedative medication may be beneficial when switching from antipsychotics with relatively higher sedative propensities. Switching from another antipsychotic to paliperidone ER requires individualized switching strategies and dosing, dependent on the characteristics of the patient and the PK and PD properties of the pre-switch medication. Cross-tapering strategies should be considered as a means of reducing the risk of rebound and withdrawal symptoms.
Annals of General Psychiatry 04/2014; 13(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1744-859X-13-10 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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