The RNA binding protein Sam68 is acetylated in tumor cell lines, and its acetylation correlates with enhanced RNA binding activity.
ABSTRACT Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis; 68 kDa) is a member of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) family of KH domain-containing RNA binding proteins. Accumulating evidence suggests that it plays an important role in cell cycle control. Tyrosine phosphorylation by Src family kinases and breast tumor kinase can negatively regulate its RNA binding activity. To date, there are no reports of a factor, such as a phosphatase, which can positively regulate Sam68 association with RNA. Acetylation is a reversible post-translational modification known to influence the activity of DNA binding proteins. However, acetylation of a cellular RNA binding protein as a mechanism for regulating its activity has not yet been reported. Here we demonstrate Sam68 to be acetylated in vivo. A screen of several human mammary epithelial cell lines revealed variations in Sam68 acetylation. Interestingly, the highest level of acetylation was found in tumorigenic breast cancer cell lines. The screen also showed a positive correlation between Sam68 acetylation and its ability to bind RNA. The acetyltransferase CBP was shown to acetylate Sam68 and enhance its binding to poly(U) RNA. These results suggest that Sam68 association with RNA substrates may be positively regulated by acetylation, and that enhanced acetylation and RNA binding activity of Sam68 may play a role in tumor cell proliferation.
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ABSTRACT: Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 proteins are considered to be key mediators of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling. However, the identities of the Smad partners mediating TGF-beta signaling are not fully understood. Here, we show that RNA-binding protein with multiple splicing (RBPMS), a member of the RNA-binding protein family, physically interacts with Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 both in vitro and in vivo. The presence of TGF-beta increases the binding of RBPMS with these Smad proteins. Consistent with the binding results, overexpression of RBPMS enhances Smad-dependent transcriptional activity in a TGF-beta-dependent manner, whereas knockdown of RBPMS decreases this activity. RBPMS interacts with TGF-beta receptor type I (TbetaR-I), increases phosphorylation of C-terminal SSXS regions in Smad2 and Smad3, and promotes the nuclear accumulation of the Smad proteins. Moreover, RBPMS fails to enhance the transcriptional activity of Smad2 and Smad3 that lack the C-terminal phosphorylation sites. Our data provide the first evidence for an RNA-binding protein playing a role in regulation of Smad-mediated transcriptional activity and suggest that RBPMS stimulates Smad-mediated transactivation possibly through enhanced phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 at the C-terminus and promotion of the nuclear accumulation of the Smad proteins.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2006; 34(21):6314-26. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: Splicing programs and cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Numerous studies report splicing alterations in a multitude of cancers by using gene-by-gene analysis. However, understanding of the role of alternative splicing in cancer is now reaching a new level, thanks to the use of novel technologies allowing the analysis of splicing at a large-scale level. Genome-wide analyses of alternative splicing indicate that splicing alterations can affect the products of gene networks involved in key cellular programs. In addition, many splicing variants identified as being misregulated in cancer are expressed in normal tissues. These observations suggest that splicing programs contribute to specific cellular programs that are altered during cancer initiation and progression. Supporting this model, recent studies have identified splicing factors controlling cancer-associated splicing programs. The characterization of splicing programs and their regulation by splicing factors will allow a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms involved in cancer initiation and progression and the development of new therapeutic targets.Journal of nucleic acids 01/2012; 2012:269570.
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ABSTRACT: The development of genome-wide analysis tools has prompted global investigation of the gene expression program, reveal-ing highly coordinated control mechanisms that ensure proper spatiotemporal activity of a cell ' s macromolecular compo-nents. With respect to the regulation of RNA transcripts, the concept of RNA regulons, which – by analogy with DNA regulons in bacteria – refers to the coordinated control of functionally related RNA molecules, has emerged as a unify-ing theory that describes the logic of regulatory RNA-protein interactions in eukaryotes. Hundreds of RNA-binding pro-teins and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs, bind to distinct elements in target RNAs, thereby exerting specifi c and concerted control over posttranscriptional events. In this review, we discuss recent reports committed to systematically explore the RNA-protein interaction network and outline some of the principles and recurring features of RNA regulons: the coordination of functionally related mRNAs through RNA-binding proteins or non-coding RNAs, the modular structure of its components, and the dynamic rewiring of RNA-protein interactions upon exposure to internal or external stimuli. We also summarize evidence for robust combinatorial control of mRNAs, which could determine the ultimate fate of each mRNA molecule in a cell. Finally, the compilation and inte-gration of global protein-RNA interaction data has yielded fi rst insights into network structures and provided the hypoth-esis that RNA regulons may, in part, constitute noise ' buffers ' to handle stochasticity in cellular transcription.Biomolecular concepts 07/2012; 3(4):403-414.