Algal-oil capsules and cooked salmon: Nutritionally equivalent sources of docosahexaenoic acid
ABSTRACT Food and nutrition professionals question whether supplement-sourced nutrients appear to be equivalent to those derived from natural food sources. We compared the nutritional availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from algal-oil capsules to that from assayed cooked salmon in 32 healthy men and women, ages 20 to 65 years, in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group study. In this 2-week study comparing 600 mg DHA/day from algal-oil capsules to that from assayed portions of cooked salmon, mean change from baseline in plasma phospholipids and erythrocyte DHA levels was analyzed and DHA levels were compared by Student's t tests. In post-hoc analyses to determine bioequivalence, least-squares mean ratios of percent change from baseline in plasma phospholipid and erythrocyte DHA levels were compared. DHA levels increased by approximately 80% in plasma phospholipids and by approximately 25% in erythrocytes in both groups. Changes in DHA levels in plasma phospholipids and erythrocytes were similar between groups. As measured by delivery of DHA to both plasma and erythrocytes, fish and algal-oil capsules were equivalent. Both regimens were generally well-tolerated. These results indicate that algal-oil DHA capsules and cooked salmon appear to be bioequivalent in providing DHA to plasma and red blood cells and, accordingly, that algal-oil DHA capsules represent a safe and convenient source of non-fish-derived DHA.
Article: Docosahexaenoic acid from algal oil[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Certain algae produce long chain omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids as part of normal metabolism. In nature, these fatty acids enter the food chain and are important nutrients for the health of many animals, including humans. Cultured under specific and tightly controlled conditions, these oils are commercially produced for use in infant formula, foods, beverages, and a variety of supplements. EPA and DHA have long been associated with cardiovascular health. More recently the impact of DHA, as the primary n-3 fatty acid in brain and retinal tissue, has been documented. Within membranes, DHA facilitates cell signaling and serves as a precursor to highly bioactive molecules. Because endogenous production is low, levels of DHA in brain, retina, and other tissues do not reach higher levels unless this preformed fatty acid is included in the diet. Most Westernized diets provide low levels of EPA and DHA, making their use in supplements and fortified foods necessary for optimal health.European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 09/2013; 115(9). DOI:10.1002/ejlt.201300060 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Numerous scientific organisations recommend at least two servings of fatty fish per week for heart health in the general population. They recognise the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA), as the bioactive nutrients in fish and extend recommendations to include supplements of these fatty acids, particularly in people with an increased risk or previous diagnosis of heart disease. Epidemiologic observations and clinical interventions have indicated that diets high in EPA and DHA, through fish intake or supplement use, reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. These longchain fatty acids are known to widely impact tissue function through incorporation in membranes. Studies show that EPA and DHA reduce serum triglycerides, reduce blood pressure and heart rate, and normalise inflammatory responses as well as other mechanisms associated with cardiovascular efficiency and protection. The diversity in design and purpose of recent clinical trials has led to mixed results regarding the impact of EPA and DHA on coronary heart disease, particularly in patients treated with statins and other preventive medications. Of particular concern is the reporting of results from studies which are statistically underpowered. In spite of the diversity and confounders associated with these trials, however, the consumption of EPA and DHA is consistently associated with a reduction in cardiac death. The intake of EPA and DHA is below recommended levels in many developed and underdeveloped countries, and an increase in fatty fish intake or the use of supplements containing EPA and DHA is warranted.06/2014; 13(2):49-60. DOI:10.1007/s13749-014-0020-7