Algal-Oil Capsules and Cooked Salmon: Nutritionally Equivalent Sources of Docosahexaenoic Acid

Pharmacology and Toxicology, Alba Therapeutics, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 08/2008; 108(7):1204-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.04.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Food and nutrition professionals question whether supplement-sourced nutrients appear to be equivalent to those derived from natural food sources. We compared the nutritional availability of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from algal-oil capsules to that from assayed cooked salmon in 32 healthy men and women, ages 20 to 65 years, in a randomized, open-label, parallel-group study. In this 2-week study comparing 600 mg DHA/day from algal-oil capsules to that from assayed portions of cooked salmon, mean change from baseline in plasma phospholipids and erythrocyte DHA levels was analyzed and DHA levels were compared by Student's t tests. In post-hoc analyses to determine bioequivalence, least-squares mean ratios of percent change from baseline in plasma phospholipid and erythrocyte DHA levels were compared. DHA levels increased by approximately 80% in plasma phospholipids and by approximately 25% in erythrocytes in both groups. Changes in DHA levels in plasma phospholipids and erythrocytes were similar between groups. As measured by delivery of DHA to both plasma and erythrocytes, fish and algal-oil capsules were equivalent. Both regimens were generally well-tolerated. These results indicate that algal-oil DHA capsules and cooked salmon appear to be bioequivalent in providing DHA to plasma and red blood cells and, accordingly, that algal-oil DHA capsules represent a safe and convenient source of non-fish-derived DHA.

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    • "The increase may be due to the presence of omega-3 fatty acid. Canola oil; obtained from rapeseeds, flaxed seed oil and soybean oil contain high levels of omega-3 fatty acid which lowers the risk and predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (Arterburn et al., 2008). But it has been generally agreed among nutritionists that edible oils such as coconut and peanut oils should be avoided due to high content of saturated fatty acids (Enig, 1996). "
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    ABSTRACT: This aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soybean oil supplemented diet on the fatty acid level and lipid profile of male albino rats. Forty healthy male albino rats weighing between 96-110 g and aged 6 weeks were used. The rats were placed randomly into four groups of ten animals each. Group 1 served as control and had no soybean oil in their feed. Group 2-4 was placed on soybean oil supplemented diet 10, 20 and 30% respectively. The experiment lasted for 14 days. The results showed that the animals had significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight compared with the control. Triacylglycerol, phospholipid and total cholesterol level were also significantly (p<0.05) decreased, 80.46±3.76 to 78.46±3.22; 15.36±0.34 to 10.12±0.75; and 116.65±6.38 to 110.95±6.36 mg/dL respectively. Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) were also significantly decreased, 15.56±2.56 to 13.45±2.76; 68.88±2.54 to 56.59±2.14 mg/dL respectively. However High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) showed significant (p<0.05) increase 60.37±1.36 to 65.75±1.89 mg/dL. Cholesterol, triacylglycerol and fatty acids are significant and independent risk factors of adverse cardiovascular events. The clinical and nutritional implication of these results is discussed.
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    • "To gamble the existence of our planet's fish stocks (Jenkins, Sievenpiper et al. 2009) on inconclusive data instead of using lifestyle modifications and appropriate pharmaceutical treatments, that can be as beneficial, is not responsible, both for patients and planetary health. It is therefore important to consider the use of other sustainable sources of Omega-3 PUFAs, such as the recently developed algal sources by Martek and DuPont pharmaceutical companies (Arterburn, Oken et al. 2008; Surette 2008), for future exploration of their potential benefits in heart disease as well as other diseases. Lastly, ICDs in randomized controlled clinical trials have certainly shown their merit in assessing the different potential benefits or harms of various treatments, since the discharge of implantable cardioverter defibrillators can be used as a surrogate marker for sudden death while avoiding death. "
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    • "In contrast, dietary supplements, such as cod liver oil or fish body oil, are a popular means of boosting LC3PUFA levels in the UK (Henderson et al., 2003). Research confirms that LC3PUFA from supplements are bioavailable and can significantly increase nutritional status (Cao et al., 2006; Arterburn et al., 2008). Public interest in LC3PUFA and the considerable body of available evidence on a wide range of health benefits justify continued advancement of the science. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – There is strong evidence that very long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC3PUFA) are beneficial. The aim of this paper is to review the role of LC3PUFA in health and put this in context with habitual intakes and international recommendations. Design/methodology/approach – A literature review was conducted to locate and summarise relevant published studies and reports. Findings – There is good evidence that LC3PUFA help prevent cardiovascular disease, and may ameliorate inflammatory conditions and mental health issues, as well as supporting cognitive function throughout life. UK dietary surveys show that average fish intakes are well below the recommended two portions per week. Given that the majority of consumers do not eat oily fish, it is reasonable to consider the potential contribution of dietary supplements or fortified foods, although the latter must be sufficiently high in LC3PUFA to merit consideration. Research limitations/implications – Information on LC3PUFA intakes in the UK is lacking. Future dietary surveys should remedy this and look at the relative contribution of different food groups, including supplements, to LC3PUFA intakes. Originality/value – This paper gives a concise, up-to-date overview on LC3PUFA sources, intakes, recommendations and their impact upon health.
    Nutrition & Food Science 07/2009; 39(4):423-438. DOI:10.1108/00346650910976293
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