Celiac disease: from gluten to autoimmunity.
ABSTRACT Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy and nontropical sprue, is a prevalent autoimmune disorder that is triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins of rye and barley in genetically susceptible individuals. The immune response in celiac disease involves the adaptive, as well as the innate, and is characterized by the presence of anti-gluten and anti-transglutaminase 2 antibodies, lymphocytic infiltration in the epithelial membrane and the lamina propria, and expression of multiple cytokines and other signaling proteins. The disease leads to inflammation, villous atrophy, and crypt hyperplasia in the small intestine. In addition to the intestinal symptoms, celiac disease is associated with various extra-intestinal complications, including bone and skin disease, anemia, endocrine disorders, and neurologic deficits. Gluten-free diet is currently the only effective mode of treatment for celiac disease, but better understanding of the mechanism of the disease is likely to add other choices for therapy in the future.
SourceAvailable from: Edward J Ciaccio[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients.
CyTA - Journal of Food 05/2015; DOI:10.1080/19476337.2015.1029524 · 0.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to study the immunological changes seen in the intestinal epithelium of the celiac patients could also be detected in the peripheral blood lymphocyte populations. Celiac disease (CD) is a small bowel enteropathy caused by permanent wheat gluten intolerance. One of the earliest signs of CD is an increase in the numbers of the intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIEL). In this case-control study, totally 13 untreated subjects with acceptable criteria for CD without any complication and 16 healthy subjects without any positive criteria for CD were selected. Peripheral blood T cells were analyzed by two-color flow cytometry in both groups. The mean age of patients was 33.6 ± 3.4 years and two patients had Marsh IIIB, five patients had Marsh IIIA and six patients had Marsh II histology class. The mean percentages of the TCR(+) T cells in the patients were significantly higher than the controls (p=0.015). However, the mean percentages of the αβTCR(+) T cells were significantly lower in the untreated patients than the controls (p=0.025). There were no significant difference between the mean percentages of lymphocytes expressing the CD3, CD4 and CD8 molecules in the patients and the controls. The change in the percentages of the peripheral blood T cells expressing the γδTCR and αβTCR in the celiac patients could be used in conjunction with the other serological markers to identify new CD cases.01/2015; 8(2):132-9.