Celiac disease: From gluten to autoimmunity

Department of Neurosciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Autoimmunity Reviews (Impact Factor: 7.93). 07/2008; 7(8):644-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2008.05.006
Source: PubMed


Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy and nontropical sprue, is a prevalent autoimmune disorder that is triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten and related proteins of rye and barley in genetically susceptible individuals. The immune response in celiac disease involves the adaptive, as well as the innate, and is characterized by the presence of anti-gluten and anti-transglutaminase 2 antibodies, lymphocytic infiltration in the epithelial membrane and the lamina propria, and expression of multiple cytokines and other signaling proteins. The disease leads to inflammation, villous atrophy, and crypt hyperplasia in the small intestine. In addition to the intestinal symptoms, celiac disease is associated with various extra-intestinal complications, including bone and skin disease, anemia, endocrine disorders, and neurologic deficits. Gluten-free diet is currently the only effective mode of treatment for celiac disease, but better understanding of the mechanism of the disease is likely to add other choices for therapy in the future.

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    • "In addition to immunosuppressive and proinflammatory properties, selected mycotoxins affect Th1/Th2 polarization, as observed in IBD (Baumgart and Carding 2007, Briani et al. 2008). When administered to monogastric animals, DON elicits a specific immune response which is manifested by increased Th2 activity and a drop in Th1 activity (Li et al. 2005), as found in allergies (Luft et al. 2008, Maresca and Fantini 2010). "

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    • "High-quality cassava flour is one of the major processed by-products from cassava root. It is gluten-free flour and beneficial in the treatment of coeliac patients (Biagi et al., 2009; Briani, Samaroo, & Alaedini, 2008). Cassava flour has high carbohydrate (CHO) content and is a source of high caloric food. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of storage conditions: cool (15 ± 1°C, 90% relative humidity (RH)), ambient (23 ± 2°C, 60% RH) and higher (38 ± 2°C, 60% RH) on changes in physicochemical quality attributes of two cassava flour cultivars (TME 419 and UMUCASS 36) packaged in paper bags and stored for 12 weeks. Physicochemical and microbial qualities were studied at weeks 0, 4, 8 and 12. Moisture content decreased from 12.0% to 7.1% and 9.8% to 6.8% in cultivars ‘TME 419’ and ‘UMUCASS 36’, respectively. Carotenoid content was higher in cultivar (cv.) ‘UMUCASS 36’ (2.5 ± 0.10 mg/g) compare to cv. ‘TME 419’ (1.8 ± 0.11 mg/g). Colour indices of the cassava flour were significantly influenced by storage duration. A slight decrease in microbial load from 5.4 to 4.8 log CFU/g was observed, with increase in temperature from 15°C to 38°C at the end of storage. The ambient storage condition best maintained nutritional and physicochemical quality.
    CyTA - Journal of Food 05/2015; 13(4). DOI:10.1080/19476337.2015.1029524 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    • "Cassava flour is highly recommended in the diet of celiac patients with strict adherence to gluten-free food products (Briani et al. 2008; Niewinski 2008). Celiac disease is an autoimmune complex that affects the bowel after the ingestion of gluten-containing grains or cereals such as wheat and rye (Briani et al. 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The increase in global demand for healthy food products and initiatives to ensure food security in developing countries has focused on the cultivation of drought-resistant and biofortified cassava varieties. Cassava is a staple root crop grown in subtropical and tropical climates. Cassava flour is gluten free, which can be used as composite flour in essential foods such as bread. Thus, the role of postharvest handling of freshly harvested cassava root is essential, owing to the rapid physiological deterioration of the root soon after harvest. This situation confers a limited shelf life and, thus, creates poor utilization of the cassava root. However, processing cassava root into other food forms such as fufu, garri, starch and high-quality flour enhances stability and long-term storage. This article critically reviewed the postharvest handling, processing and storage of fresh cassava root. Highlighting on the role of storage and minimal processing on sustainable cassava production, various spoilage mechanisms of cassava root were identified. In developing countries, cassava root is a valuable food and energy source, and understanding the role of optimum postharvest handling, processing and storage techniques would alleviate some concerns of food insecurity.
    Food and Bioprocess Technology 04/2015; 8(4). DOI:10.1007/s11947-015-1478-z · 2.69 Impact Factor
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